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Table 1 Demographic and baseline characteristics of 828 patients with COVID-19

From: Development and validation of a risk factor-based system to predict short-term survival in adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study

Characteristics Enrolled patients (n = 828) Training cohort (n = 516) External validation cohort 1 (n = 186) External validation cohort 2 (n = 126)
Survivors (n = 420) Non-survivors (n = 96) Survivors (n = 156) Non-survivors (n = 30) Survivors (n = 106) Non-survivors (n = 20)
Female n (%) 381 (46.01%) 207 (49.29%) 24 (25.00%) 82 (52.56%) 12 (40.00%) 50 (47.17%) 6 (30.00%)
Male n (%) 447 (53.99%) 213 (50.71%) 72 (75.00%) 74 (47.44%) 18 (60.00%) 56 (52.83%) 14 (70.00%)
Age (years) Median (IQR) 62.0 (51.0–69.0) 59.0 (48.0–67.0) 67.0 (61.0–73.8) 63.0 (52.0–69.0) 68.0 (63.8–76.5) 57 (40.8–67.0) 65.0 (61.5–84.5)
 ≤ 50 n (%) 200 (24.15%) 123 (29.29%) 4 (4.17%) 33 (21.15%) 1 (3.33%) 36 (33.96%) 3 (15.00%)
 51–60 n (%) 185 (22.34%) 102 (24.29%) 18 (18.75%) 38 (24.36%) 1 (3.33%) 25 (23.58%) 1 (5.00%)
 61–70 n (%) 276 (33.33%) 118 (28.10%) 41 (42.71%) 57 (36.54%) 16 (53.33%) 36 (33.96%) 8 (40.00%)
 > 70 n (%) 167 (20.17%) 77 (18.33%) 33 (34.38%) 28 (17.95%) 12 (40.00%) 9 (8.49%) 8 (40.00%)
Symptoms onset to admission, days Median (IQR) 10.0 (7.0–13.0) 10.0 (7.0–13.0) 10.0 (7.0–13.0) 12.0 (9.0–15.0) 12.0 (7.8–15.0) 7.0 (5.0–10.0) 7.0 (5.3–10.8)
Symptoms
 Fever n (%) 704 (85.02%) 374 (89.05%) 80 (83.33%) 128 (82.05%) 20 (66.67%) 85 (80.19%) 17 (85.00%)
 Cough n (%) 565 (68.24%) 291 (69.29%) 62 (64.58%) 98 (62.82%) 21 (70.00%) 78 (73.58%) 15 (75.00%)
 Weakness n (%) 436 (52.66%) 238 (56.67%) 65 (67.71%) 62 (39.74%) 16 (53.33%) 47 (44.34%) 8 (40.00%)
 Shortness of breath n (%) 268 (32.37%) 146 (34.76%) 33 (34.38%) 38 (24.36%) 4 (13.33%) 35 (33.02%) 12 (60.00%)
 Dyspnea n (%) 246 (29.71%) 115 (27.38%) 40 (41.67%) 42 (26.92%) 15 (50.00%) 21 (19.81%) 13 (65.00%)
 Myalgia n (%) 193 (23.31%) 104 (24.76%) 26 (27.08%) 33 (21.15%) 11 (36.67%) 19 (17.92%) 0
 Anorexia n (%) 163 (19.69%) 89 (21.19%) 28 (29.17%) 19 (12.18%) 3 (10.00%) 21 (19.81%) 3 (15.00%)
 Diarrhea n (%) 126 (15.22%) 69 (16.43%) 17 (17.71%) 21 (13.46%) 4 (13.33%) 13 (12.26%) 2 (10.00%)
 Mild n (%) 289 (34.90%) 134 (31.90%) 0 75 (48.08%) 1 (3.33%) 77 (72.64%) 2 (10.00%)
 Severely ill n (%) 539 (65.10%) 286 (68.10%) 96 (100.00%) 81 (51.92%) 29 (96.67%) 29 (27.36%) 18 (90.00%)
Comorbidities
 Any n (%) 374 (45.17%) 162 (38.57%) 48 (50.00%) 82 (52.56%) 21 (70.00%) 48 (45.28%) 13 (65.00%)
 Hypertension n (%) 259 (31.28%) 107 (25.48%) 31 (32.29%) 53 (33.97%) 16 (53.33%) 35 (33.02%) 12 (60.00%)
 Diabetes n (%) 134 (16.18%) 60 (14.29%) 16 (16.67%) 32 (20.51%) 9 (30.00%) 12 (11.32%) 5 (25.00%)
 Chronic cardiac disease n (%) 106 (12.80%) 53 (12.62%) 14 (14.58%) 19 (12.18%) 8 (26.67%) 8 (7.55%) 4 (20.00%)
 Cerebrovascular disease n (%) 26 (3.14%) 6 (1.43%) 4 (4.17%) 5 (3.21%) 5 (16.67%) 2 (1.89%) 4 (20.00%)
 Chronic hepatic disease n (%) 23 (2.78%) 13 (3.10%) 3 (3.13%) 4 (2.56%) 1 (3.33%) 2 (1.89%) 0
 Chronic respiratory disease n (%) 25 (3.02%) 11 (2.62%) 3 (3.13%) 8 (5.13%) 0 3 (2.83%) 0
 Chronic renal disease n (%) 18 (2.17%) 6 (1.43%) 3 (3.13%) 3 (1.92%) 4 (13.33%) 1 (0.94%) 1 (5.00%)
 A history of malignancy n (%) 27 (3.26%) 16 (3.81%) 5 (5.21%) 1 (0.64%) 3 (10.00%) 2 (1.89%) 0
  1. Categorical variables were presented as frequency rates and percentages
  2. Continuous variables were expressed median (IQR)
  3. CI confidence interval