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Table 1 Patients demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Can levosimendan reduce ECMO weaning failure in cardiogenic shock?: a cohort study with propensity score analysis

  All (n = 200) Levosimendan (n = 53) Control (n = 147) p value
Clinical characteristics at ICU admission
 Age (years) 53 ± 13.5 53.9 ± 14.3 52.6 ± 13.3 0.575
 Male 129 (64.5) 33 (62.3) 96 (65.3) 0.692
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 5.4 25.3 ± 5.6 25.3 ± 5.3 0.975
 SAPS-II 52.2 ± 14.3 53.5 ± 10.8 51.7 ± 15.4 0.349
 SOFA 11.7 ± 2.1 11.5 ± 1.5 11.8 ± 2.2 0.459
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 62 (31) 18 (34) 44 (29.9) 0.587
 Diabetes 36 (18) 11 (20.8) 25 (17) 0.430
 History of congestive heart failure 101 (51) 26 (50) 75 (51.4) 0.865
 Coronary artery disease 88 (44) 27 (50.9) 61 (41.5) 0.235
 Peripheral artery disease 11 (5.5) 4 (7.5) 7 (4.8) 0.446
 History of stroke 14 (7) 5 (9.4) 9 (6.1) 0.418
 Smoking 71 (35.5) 18 (34) 53 (36.1) 0.785
 Dyslipidemia 49 (24.5) 14 (26.4) 35 (23.8) 0.705
 Renal failure with dialysis 15 (7.5) 3 (5.6) 12 (8.1) 0.553
Indication for VA-ECMO 0.068
 Post-cardiotomy 59 (29.5) 18 (34) 41 (27.9)  
 Acute myocardial infarction 45 (22.5) 17 (32.1) 28 (19)  
 Graft dysfunction 33 (16.5) 3 (5.7) 30 (20.4)  
 Dilated cardiomyopathy 15 (7.5) 5 (9.4) 10 (6.8)
 Intoxication 14 (7) 0 (0) 14 (9)
 Fulminant myocarditis 13 (6.5) 3 (5.7) 10 (6.8)
 Pulmonary embolism 6 (3) 2 (3.8) 4 (2.7)
 Septic cardiomyopathy 6 (3) 2 (3.8) 4 (2.7)
 Others 9 (4.5) 3 (5.6) 6 (4)
Potential for myocardial recovery 0.264
 High 39 (19.5) 7 (13.2) 32 (21.8)  
 Intermediate 86 (43) 22 (41.5) 64 (43.5)
 Low 75 (37.5) 24 (45.3) 51 (34.7)
Hemodynamic parameters at admission
 LVEF (%) 19.6 ± 11.3 18 ± 11.1 20.2 ± 11.4 0.241
 TAPSE < 12 (mm) 45 (30.8) 15 (34.8) 30 (29.1) 0.489
 MAP (mmHg) 69 ± 11 70 ± 11 69 ± 11 0.643
 HR (beats/min) 103 ± 24 108 ± 21 102 ± 25 0.145
 CVP (mmHg) 10.6 ± 5 10.8 ± 5.5 10.6  ± 4.9 0.798
 ScvO2 (%) 62 ± 11 60  ± 12 63 ± 11 0.065
VA-ECMO characteristics
 VA-ECMO duration (days) 7.6 ± 5 10.6 ± 4.8 6.5  ±  4.7 < 0.001
 Flow rate (L/min) 3.5 ± 0.8 3.4 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.8 0.835
 Rotation (round/min) 4360 ± 1711 4480 ± 1724 4312 ± 1710 0.547
 FiO2 (%) 59 ± 12 58 ± 12 59 ±  13 0.977
 Peripheral VA-ECMO canulation 175 (87.5) 48 (90.6) 127 (86.4) 0.496
 IABP associated to VA-ECMO 54 (27) 16 (30.1) 38 (25.8) 0.542
Biological parameters
 Hemoglobin level (g/dL) 113 ± 25 114 ± 26 113 ± 24 0.717
 International normalized ratio 1.6 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.6 0.338
 Arterial blood pH 7.26 ±  ± 0.1 7.27 ± 0.1 7.26 ± 0.1 0.652
 Lactate level (mmol/L) 7.2 ± 5.1 6.4 ± 4.7 7.5 ± 5.3 0.178
 Creatinine level (μmol/L) 152 ± 78 150 ± 77 153 ± 79 0.843
 Total bilirubin level (μmol/L) 23 ± 17 22 ± 17 24 ± 17 0.457
 ASAT (U/L) 763 ± 1819 717 ±  ±  1454 781 ± 1945 0.828
 ALAT (U/L) 390 ± 907 295 ± 610 426 ± 998 0.372
Catecholamines during ICU stay
 Norepinephrine max dose (μg/kg/min) 1.49 ± 1.05 1.56 ± 1.07 1.47 ± 1.04 0.586
 Norepinephrine duration (days) 10.9 ± 8.7 12.8 ± 7.2 10.2 ± 9.2 0.068
 Dobutamine max dose (μg/kg/min) 9.7 ± 4.6 10.4 ± 10.2 9.5 ± 4.3 0.309
 Dobutamine duration (days) 9.1 ± 7.9 10.3 ± 10.2 8.6 ± 6.6 0.203
  1. ICU intensive care unit, BMI body mass index, SAPS-II simplified acute physiology score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, MAP mean arterial pressure, HR heart rate, CVP central venous pressure, ScvO2 central venous oxygen saturation, FiO2 fractional inspired oxygen, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, ASAT aspartate aminotransferase, ALAT alanine aminotransferase