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Table 1 Characteristics of C. difficile infection (CDI) and C. difficile-negative (CDN) patients with enteral nutrition (EN) admitted to ICU

From: Risk factors and intestinal microbiota: Clostridioides difficile infection in patients receiving enteral nutrition at Intensive Care Units

Characteristics CDI (n = 18) CDN (n = 145) P value
N (%)/median (IQR) N (%)/median (IQR)
Demographics
 Female 6 (33.3) 62 (42.8) 0.444
 Age, years 66 (57.75–73.75) 48 (37–64) 0.021*
 Duration of hospitalization (days) 30 (27.75–50.75) 20 (14–32) 0.001**
 In-hospital mortality 1 (5.6) 17 (11.7) 0.697
 Surgical intervention in previous 6 months 5 (27.8) 32 (22.1) 0.805
Clinical features
 CCI 2.5 (1–5) 2 (1–3) 0.015*
 Comorbidities by category
  Gastrointestinal disease 0 (0) 18 (12.4) 0.236
  Liver disease 5 (27.8) 52 (35.9) 0.498
  Gall bladder, biliary tract, or pancreatic disease 13 (72.2) 110 (75.9) 0.962
  Respiratory disease 3 (16.7) 26 (17.9) 1.000
  Cardiovascular disease 5 (27.8) 55 (37.9) 0.400
  Renal disease 5 (27.8) 18 (12.4) 0.159
  Neurologic disease 0 (0) 5 (3.4) 0.940
  Malignancy 1 (5.6) 7 (4.8) 1.000
  Hematologic or immunologic disorders 2 (11.1) 20 (13.8) 1.000
  Metabolic disorders 9 (50) 91 (62.8) 0.294
 Clinical common underlying disease
  Diabetes 4 (22.2) 31 (21.4) 1.000
  Fatty liver 4 (22.2) 41 (28.3) 0.588
  Hypertension 2 (11.1) 42 (29) 0.184
  History of cerebral infarction 4 (22.2) 5 (3.4) 0.006**
 Laboratory results
  Leukocyte count (× 109/L) 11.44 (8.32–13.86) 11.63 (8.53–15.31) 0.781
  Serum albumin (g/L) 30 (26–33.5) 32 (28–36) 0.047*
  Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 70 (54.8–177) 71 (55–134) 0.470
  Blood glucose (mmol/L) 11.64 (9.71–13.27) 9.57 (6.95–12.98) 0.405
In-hospital medications
 Tube type
  Nasogastric 5 (27.8) 29 (20) 0.320
  Nasojejunal 12 (66.7) 114 (78.6)
  Others# 1 (5.6) 2 (1.4)
 Formula use
  Semi-elemental 14 (77.8) 107 (73.8) 0.937
  Polymeric 4 (22.2) 38 (26.2)
 PPI use 16 (88.9) 138 (95.2) 0.580
 Antibiotics
  3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins 9 (50) 97 (66.9) 0.156
  Carbapenems 15 (83.3) 89 (61.4) 0.068
  Metronidazole 5 (27.8) 78 (63.2) 0.037*
  Vancomycin 6 (33.3) 49 (34) 0.953
  Fluoroquinolones 5 (27.8) 26 (17.9) 0.493
  Linezolid 2 (11.1) 20 (13.8) 1.000
  Aminoglycoside 1 (5.6) 10 (6.9) 1.000
  Tetracycline 2 (11.1) 9 (6.2) 0.776
  Antifungal agents 3 (16.7) 26 (17.9) 1.000
  Antiviral drugs 0 (0) 8 (5.6) 0.654
 Number of antibiotics received
  1~2 9 (50) 74 (51) 0.895
  3~4 7 (38.9) 50 (34.5)
  ≥ 5 2 (11.1) 21 (14.5)
  1. Numerical data are shown as median (interquartile range), and categorical data are described as frequency (percentage)
  2. Abbreviations: CCI Charlson comorbidities index, PPI proton pump inhibitor, IQR interquartile range
  3. #There was 1 CDI patient and 1 CDN patient receiving EN with jejunostomy tube, and 1 CDN patient with nasoduodenal tube
  4. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01