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Table 2 Principal variables associated with resistance for main MDROs causing NP

From: Update of the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU

MDRO Risk factors References
NP appearance > 6 days after admittance
NP development excluding summers
Respiratory diseases
Multilobar involvement
Respiratory infection/colonization caused by MRSA in the previous year
Hospitalization in the previous 90 days
Recent nursing home or hospital stay
Recent exposure to fluoroquinolone or antibiotics treating Gram-positive organisms
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Prior airway colonization by P. aeruginosa
Previous antibiotic treatment
Solid cancer
Alcohol abuse
Pleural effusion
Chronic liver disease independently predicted MDR amongst Pa-ICUAP
Prior use of carbapenems
Prior use of fluoroquinolones
Duration of therapy
[64, 65]
KPC Admission to ICU, antimicrobial use
Prior carbapenem
Invasive operation
Previous non-KPC-Kp infections
Duration of previous antibiotic therapy before KPC colonization
Enterobacteriaceae Male sex
Admission from another health care facility
Ventilation at any point before culture during the index hospitalization
Receipt of any carbapenem in the prior 30 days
Receipt of any anti-MRSA agent in the prior 30 days
[68, 70]
Acinetobacter baumannii APACHE II score at admission
Systemic illnesses (chronic respiratory disease and cerebrovascular accident)
Presence of excess non-invasive or invasive devices (mechanical ventilation)
Ever used antibiotics within 28 days (carbapenem and cefepime)
[5, 71, 72]
  1. KPC Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, MRSA meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MDRO multidrug-resistant organism, NP nosocomial pneumonia