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Table 1 Microbiology and main resistance profile of microorganism causing VAP, VAT and HAP in non-ventilated patients treated in ICU (data from studies published from 2010 to 2019)

From: Update of the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU

Reference Type of infection Microbiology
Ferrer et al. [30] HAP S. aureus, 17.7% P. aeruginosa, 17.7% E.coli, 6.5% Enterobacter spp., 4.3% K. pneumoniae, 3.2%
Esperatti et al. [22] VAP P. aeruginosa, 24% S. aureus, 23% E. coli, 7% Enterobacter spp., 6% H. influenzae, 4%
Restrepo et al. [31] VAP S. aureus, 38.7% H. influenzae, 23.4% P. aeruginosa, 14.7% k. pneumoniae, 11.5% E. coli, 11.1%
MDR, 30%
Quartin et al. [32]* VAP S. aureus, 60.3% P. aeruginosa, 9.4% Acinetobacter spp., 7.3% Klebsiella spp., 6.8% Enterobacter spp., 5.1%
Nseir et al. [33] VAT P. aeruginosa, 34.4% S. aureus, 20.5% A. baumanii, 11.5% K. oxytoca, 10.6% Enterobacter spp., 9.8%
MDR, 36.8%
Martín-Loeches et al. [21] VAT P. aeruginosa, 25% S. aureus, 23% Klebsiella spp., 15% E. coli, 12% Enterobacter spp., 11%
MDR, 61%
VAP P. aeruginosa, 24% S. aureus, 24% Klebsiella spp., 14% Enterobacter spp., 12% E. coli, 11%
MDR, 61%
ECDC [18] VAP P. aeruginosa, 20.8% S. aureus, 17.8% Klebsiella spp., 16.1% E. coli, 13.3% Enterobacter spp., 10.3%
Koulenti et al. [29] HAP Enterobacteriaceae, 32.9% S. aureus, 24.9% P. aeruginosa, 17.4% A. baumanii, 15.4%  
ENVIN-HELICS [3] VAP P. aeruginosa, 23.8% S. aureus, 13.5% Klebsiella spp., 10.3% E. coli, 9.1% Enterobacter spp., 8.6%
PIP/TAZ R, 34.1%
Carba R, 37.9%
Colistin R, 8.6%
MRSA, 12.7% PIP/TAZ R, 50%
Carba R, 23.5%
3°G cef R, 37%
PIP/TAZ R, 21.7%
Carba R, 0%
3°G cef R, 12.5%
 
Pulido et al. [34] VAP P. aeruginosa, 21.1% A. baumanii, 17.9% K. pneumoniae, 15.6% S. aureus, 13.3% E. coli, 7.8%
Huang et al. [35] VAP A. baumanii, 33.9% K. pneumoniae, 23.6% P. aeruginosa, 19.8% S. aureus, 7.1% S. maltophilia, 3.8%
Carba R, 76.4% Carba R, 44% Carba R, 59.5% MRSA, 60%  
Cantón-Bulnes et al. [36] VAT P. aeruginosa, 24.5% H. influenzae, 18.9% E. coli, 9.4% S. aureus, 9.4% K. pneumoniae, 7.5%
Ibn Saied et al. [37] VAP P. aeruginosa, 33.5% Enterobacteriaceae, 32.3% S. aureus, 19% S. pneumoniae, 4.9% S. maltophilia, 4.7%
  1. carba carbapenem, HAP hospital-acquired pneumonia, MDR multidrug resistant, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, VAT ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis, PIP/TAZ piperacillin/tazobactam, R resistance, 3°G cef 3° generation cephalosporin
  2. *Trial designed to compare MRSA pneumonia treatment, special effort to include patients with MRSA pneumonia