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Table 1 The similarities and the differences in thrombosis and laboratory data between COVID-19 and differential diseases

From: The unique characteristics of COVID-19 coagulopathy

 Primary cause and target of coagulopathyThrombo-embolismPlatelet countD-dimerPT/aPTTfibrinogenAnti-thrombinActivated complement system/VWFAntiphospho-lipid antibodyInflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6)
COVID-19Macrophage/endothelial cellMicrothrombosis/venous thrombosis↑〜↓→〜↑++
DIC/SICMacrophage/endothelial cellMicrothrombosis→〜↓
HPSInflammatory cytokinesMicrothrombosis/venous thrombosis
APSAntiphospho-lipid antibodyArterial/venous thrombosisPT →
aPTT ↑
+
TMA (aHUS/TTP)Complement system/ADAMTS13Microthrombosis/arterial/venous thrombosis→〜↑aHUS +/–TTP –/+
  1. DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation, SIC sepsis-induced coagulopathy, HPS hemophagocytic syndrome, APS antiphospholipid syndrome, TMA thrombotic microangiopathy, aHUS atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, TTP thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, PT prothrombin time, aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time, VWF von Willebrand factor, IL interleukin