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Table 3 Potential impact of multiplex PCR on antibiotic therapy

From: Performance and impact of a multiplex PCR in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilated hospital-acquired pneumonia

Initial antibiotic therapy (after Gram stain results)nAppropriate changesNo changeInappropriate changes
AdequacyDe-escalationOptimizationInadequacyEscalationDe-optimization
Carbapenem + others1701006100
Piperacillin-tazobactam ± aminoglycosides2721537000
Fourth-generation cephalosporin ± aminoglycosides161706002
Third-generation cephalosporin ± aminoglycosides115204000
Amoxicillin-clavulanate50104000
Others*52201000
No treatment1410004000
Total (%)9520 (21)37 (39)3 (3)32 (34)1 (1)02 (2)
  1. Only bacteria that were superior to diagnostic thresholds (104 CFU/ml for BAL and 103 CFU/ml for PTC) were considered
  2. *Others included cefazolin switched to piperacillin-tazobactam (adequacy), addition of levofloxacin + rifampicin for a L. pneumophila (adequacy), colistin switched to cefotaxime (de-escalation), vancomycin switched to oxacillin (de-escalation), unchanged cefazolin