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Table 2 Clinical features, laboratory results on admission, and outcomes of the study patients

From: Invasive mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patient management: the experience with 469 patients in Wuhan

 All (n = 469)No ventilation (n = 204)Invasive ventilation (n = 113)Noninvasive ventilation (n = 152)P
Age68 ± 1367 ± 1571 ± 1067 ± 130.030
Sex    0.034
 Male266 (56.7)108 (52.9)76 (67.3)82 (53.9) 
 Female203 (43.3)96 (47.1)37 (32.7)70 (46.1) 
Comorbidities, no. (%)
 Hypertension240 (51.4)99 (48.5)56 (49.6)85 (56.7)0.288
 Diabetes110 (23.6)41 (20.1)28 (24.8)41 (27.3)0.268
 Coronary artery disease84 (18.0)44 (21.6)20 (17.9)20 (13.3)0.137
 Chronic obstructive lung disease52 (11.1)13 (6.4)8 (7.1)31 (20.7)< 0.001
 Chronic kidney disease42 (9.0)21 (10.3)8 (7.1)13 (8.7)0.623
Laboratory results on admission
 White blood cell count, × 109/L9.4 ± 6.06.9 ± 3.612.7 ± 8.010.2 ± 5.2< 0.001
 Neutrophil count, × 109/L8.5 ± 9.25.7 ± 6.412.6 ± 11.98.6 ± 5.1< 0.001
 Lymphocyte count, × 109/L0.9 ± 0.61.0 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.80.9 ± 0.60.002
 NLR (neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio)13.1 ± 13.57.8 ± 9.321.3 ± 16.013.9 ± 13.0< 0.001
 Monocytes, count, × 109/L0.5 ± 0.40.5 ± 0.60.5 ± 0.40.5 ± 0.30.947
 Platelet count, × 109/L214 ± 112225 ± 97180 ± 123223 ± 1180.001
 C-reactive protein (mg/L)78.7 ± 83.647.0 ± 51.4116.1 ± 94.292.6 ± 93.8< 0.001
 Procalcitonin (ng/ml)1.9 ± 8.80.7 ± 4.72.8 ± 10.52.7 ± 10.90.078
 ALT (U/L)47.1 ± 95.231.6 ± 30.280.8 ± 179.144.3 ± 40.9< 0.001
 AST (U/L)60.2 ± 227.031.2 ± 25.0110.7 ± 429.460.9 ± 138.30.019
 Total bilirubin (μmol/L)14.7 ± 11.511.0 ± 5.718.1 ± 13.216.8 ± 14.1< 0.001
 Direct bilirubin (μmol/L)8.1 ± 7.55.0 ± 5.19.9 ± 9.210.6 ± 7.3< 0.001
 Albumin (g/L)32.0 ± 5.632.7 ± 4.630.1 ± 7.032.4 ± 5.4< 0.001
d-dimer (μg/mL)5.9 ± 11.93.1 ± 5.313.2 ± 20.54.5 ± 7.00.276
 Glucose (mmol/L)8.7 ± 4.77.1 ± 3.310.3 ± 6.89.5 ± 3.9< 0.001
 Serum creatine (Scr) (μmol/L)128.3 ± 190.7124.5 ± 197.5119.2 ± 165.2140.2 ± 199.90.636
 SOFA score on day 14.2 ± 3.12.2 ± 2.26.0 ± 3.05.5 ± 2.7< 0.001
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), no. (%)44 (9.4)6 (2.9)30 (26.5)8 (5.3)< 0.001
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), no. (%)10 (3.1)0 (0.0)10 (8.8)0 (0.0)< 0.001
Length of hospital stay (days)20.4 ± 13.227.3 ± 14.717.9 ± 12.316.1 ± 9.6< 0.001
Mortality, no. (%)179 (38.2)13 (6.4)104 (92.0)62 (40.8)< 0.001