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Table 2 Characteristics of CPR

From: Maximum emergency department overcrowding is correlated with occurrence of unexpected cardiac arrest

  Total IHCA (n = 187) Survivor (n = 108) Non-survivor (n = 79) P
ROSC 125 (66.8) 108 (100.0) 47 (59.5) < 0.01
DNR after ROSC 37 (19.8) 8 (7.5) 29 (36.7) < 0.01
Initial rhythma
 VF 16 (8.6) 14 (13.0) 2 (2.5) 0.01
 Pulseless VT 3 (1.6) 2 (1.9) 1 (1.3) 0.75
 PEA 90 (48.1) 50 (46.3) 40 (50.6) 0.56
 Asystole 47 (25.1) 22 (20.4) 25 (31.6) 0.08
 Unknown 30 (16.0) 19 (17.6) 11 (13.9) 0.50
Hypothermia 17 (9.1) 17 (15.7) 0 (0.0) < 0.01
PCI 12 (6.4) 10 (9.3) 2 (2.5) 0.06
ECMO 25 (13.4) 21 (19.4) 4 (5.1) < 0.01
Hospitalization days 2.0 (1.0–14.0) 6.0 (2.0–23.0) 1.0 (1.0–2.0) < 0.01
Good CPC score at dischargea 38 (20.3) 38 (35.2) 0 (0.0) < 0.01
Survived to hospital discharge 46 (24.6) 46 (42.6) 0 (0.0) < 0.01
No-flow time, min 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.74
Time from cardiac arrest, min
 First defibrillation 2.0 (0.0–5.0) 2.0 (0.0–4.0) 3.0 (0.0–5.0) 0.59
 First epinephrine 0.0 (0.0–1.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.56
 Intubation 0.0 (0.0–8.5) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–15.0) 0.73
 Duration of CPR 10.0 (4.0–30.0) 6.0 (3.0–14.5) 27.0 (9.5–42.0) < 0.01
ED occupancy rate
 At presentation 0.93 (0.75–1.16) 0.95 (0.76–1.16) 0.94 (0.72–1.09) 0.23
 At arrest 0.93 (0.74–1.15) 0.95 (0.75–1.15) 0.94 (0.72–1.10) 0.23
 Maximumb 1.02 (0.77–1.19) 1.06 (0.83–1.23) 0.95 (0.78–1.16) 0.24
 Averagea 0.93 (0.74–1.15) 0.95 (0.77–1.15) 0.88 (0.73–1.09) 0.24
  1. Data are presented as median with interquartile range or percentage
  2. Abbreviations: CPC cerebral performance category, DNR do-not-resuscitate, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ED emergency department, IHCA in-hospital cardiac arrest, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, PEA pulseless electrical activity, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, VF ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia
  3. aCPC scores 1 and 2 were considered as good neurologic outcomes
  4. bMaximum and average ED occupancy rate was measured during ED stay before arrest