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Table 2 Published case reports on the use of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) to treat sepsis (other than sepsis secondary to Clostridioides difficile infection)

From: The gut microbiome’s role in the development, maintenance, and outcomes of sepsis

Author, year [citation] Location Patient age, sex, comorbidity ICU complications Sepsis etiology Gut microbiome changes with FMT Outcome
Li, 2014 [80] China 29F, UC Bacteremia, shock Unclear; prolonged diarrhea • Pre: few anaerobes, abundant pathogens including Enterobacter Clinical improvement
• Post: shifted to donor stool; increased Bacteroides and Firmicutes
Li, 2015 [43] China 44F, s/p proximal gastrectomy and vagotomy for NET Shock, respiratory failure (V-V ECMO), AKI (CRRT) Unclear; prolonged diarrhea • Pre: few anaerobes, abundant pathogens including Enterobacter and Klebsiella Clinical improvement
• Post: increased Firmicutes; decreased pathobionts
Wei, 2016 [82] China 65M, hemorrhagic CVA Shock, respiratory failure, bacteremia Unclear; prolonged diarrhea • Pre: different from donor Clinical improvement
• Post: increased Firmicutes, Bacteroides
Wei, 2016 [82] China 84M, ischemic CVA AKI (CRRT) Unclear; prolonged diarrhea • Pre: different from donor Clinical improvement
• Post: increased Firmicutes, decreased pathobionts
Gopalsamy, 2018 [81] USA 57M, TBI MDRO infection, respiratory failure Pneumonia Not studied Death
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, CVA cerebrovascular accident, F female, ECMO extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation, FMT fecal microbiota transplant, ICU intensive care unit, M male, MDRO multi-drug resistant organism, NET neuroendocrine tumor, TBI traumatic brain injury, UC ulcerative colitis, USA United States of America, V-V veno-venous