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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Urine cell cycle arrest biomarkers distinguish poorly between transient and persistent AKI in early septic shock: a prospective, multicenter study

  Total cohort (n = 184) Transient AKI (n = 100) Persistent AKI (n = 84) p value
Demographic data
 Age (years) 69 [58–79] 67 [55–77] 71 [61–81] 0.1
 Male 122 (66) 66 (66) 56 (67) 0.9
 Hypertension 93 (49) 57 (57) 36 (43) 0.07
 Diabetes mellitus 51 (28) 28 (28) 23 (27) 0.9
 Congestive heart failure 15 (8) 6 (6) 9 (9) 0.2
 Chronic kidney disease 23 (12) 10 (10) 13 (15) 0.3
 Historical serum creatinine concentration (μmol/l) 80 [69–97] 77 [65–88] 87 [71–97] 0.03
 Historical eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) 77 [72–98] 79 [74–103] 76 [67–89] 0.03
Mode of admission
 Medical admission 168 (91) 92 (92) 76 (90) 0.1
 Ward 48 (26) 22 (22) 26 (31) 0.2
 Emergency room 82 (45) 48 (48) 34 (40) 0.3
 Direct admission to ICU 30 (16) 20 (20) 10 (12) 0.1
 Transferred from another center 24 (13) 10 (10) 14 (17) 0.2
Primary source of sepsis
 Pulmonary 105 (57) 58 (58) 47 (56) 0.8
 Urinary 22 (12) 13 (13) 9 (11) 0.6
 Intra-abdominal 37 (20) 17 (17) 20 (24) 0.2
 Soft tissue 15 (8) 6 (6) 9 (11) 0.2
 Germ identification 112 (61) 60 (60) 52 (62) 0.8
 Gram-negative/Gram-positive 65/50 33/27 32/23 0.7
ICU management
 Time from vasopressor initiation to inclusion (h) 1.0 [0.0–3.0] 2.0 [0.0–3.5] 1.0 [0.0–3.0] 0.2
 Perfusion fluid received before inclusion (ml/kg) 13.3 [5.8–21.0] 14.4 [5.1–19.8] 12.3 [5.9–23.2] 0.9
 Contrast agent exposure before inclusion 36 (20) 20 (20) 16 (19) 0.9
 Norepinephrine dose at inclusion (μg/kg/min) 0.36 [0.19–0.75] 0.32 [0.19–0.55] 0.46 [0.19–0.90] 0.05
 SAPS II score 55 [42–69] 50 [39–60] 61 [50–75] < 0.001
 Baseline SOFA score 10 [8–12] 9 [8–11] 11 [9–13] < 0.001
 Baseline SOFA without renal component 8 [7–10] 8 [6–10] 9 [7–11] 0.01
 Baseline lactate concentration (mmol/l) 2.0 [1.4–3.5] 1.8 [1.3–3.1] 2.6 [1.5–4.1] 0.007
 Mechanical ventilation 101 (55) 50 (50) 51 (61) 0.1
 Use of loop diuretics at 24 h 10 (5) 6 (6) 4 (5) 0.6
 Perfusion fluid at 24 h (ml/kg) 33.3 [14.3–57.2] 31.5 [14.3–57.8] 33.8 [14.8–57.2] 0.7
 Fluid balance at 24 h (ml/kg) 9.7 [− 12.7–33.1] 0.7 [− 18.8–21.7] 23.1 [− 1.5–49.3] < 0.001
 Fluid overload (> 10%) at 24 h 92 (50) 36 (36) 56 (67) < 0.001
 Norepinephrine dose at 24 h (μg/kg/min) 0.18 [0.04–0.72] 0.13 [0.02–0.36] 0.45 [0.09–1.15] < 0.001
 Fluid balance at 48 h (ml/kg) 0.8 [− 30.7–33.1] − 17.6 [− 42.8–14.5] 22.1 [− 8.3–55.3] < 0.001
 Fluid overload (> 10%) at 48 h 78 (42) 29 (29) 49 (58) < 0.001
Kidney function
 Baseline urine output (ml/kg/h) 0.59 [0.27–1.10] 0.83 [0.52–1.65] 0.31 [0.13–0.62] < 0.001
 Baseline serum creatinine concentration (μmol/l) 150 [111–216] 133 [107–178] 183 [120–239] 0.002
 Baseline serum urea concentration (mmol/l) 13.7 [9.2–19.2] 12.7 [9.0–18.1] 15.0 [9.9–21.2] 0.1
 Urine output at 24 h (ml/kg/h) 0.72 [0.34–1.33] 1.08 [0.65–1.51] 0.43 [0.06–0.84] < 0.001
KDIGO stage at inclusion     0.01
 Mild AKI 94 (51) 61 (61) 33 (39)  
 Moderate AKI 55 (30) 24 (24) 31 (37)  
 Severe AKI 35 (19) 15 (15) 20 (24)  
 Serum creatinine concentration at 24 h (μmol/l)* 121 [86–180] 95 [75–125] 181 [140–258] < 0.001
 Kinetic eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)* 55 [35–89] 76 [54–95] 28 [15–49] < 0.001
 Renal replacement therapy within 72 h 30 (16) 2 (2) 28 (33) < 0.001
Outcome
 In-ICU mortality 55 (30) 14 (14) 41 (49) < 0.001
 Mortality at D28 54 (29) 14 (14) 40 (48) < 0.001
  1. Median and interquartile range, n (%)
  2. ICU intensive care unit, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score 2, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  3. *Excluding patients on renal replacement therapy at 24 h