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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for steroid treatment and non-steroid treatment groups comprising critically ill patients with COVID-19 before and after propensity score matching

From: Adjuvant corticosteroid therapy for critically ill patients with COVID-19

 Cohort studyCase-control study (PSM)
 Steroid (151)Non-steroid (93)PSteroid (31)Non-steroid (31)P
Age, years64 (53–71)59 (47–69).0957 (51–69)58 (50–67).98
Gender, male83 (55)45 (48).3916 (52)16 (52)1
Signs and symptoms
 Fever136 (90)81 (87).6130 (97)26 (84).2
 Dry cough112 (74)57 (61).0521 (68)21 (68)1
 Dyspnea94 (62)53 (57).520 (65)19 (61)1
 Fatigue70 (46)48 (52).5112 (39)13 (42)1
 Expectoration69 (46)30 (32).0512 (39)12 (39)1
 Diarrhea45 (30)22 (24).3710 (32)7 (23).57
 Anorexia42 (28)25 (27).995 (16)8 (26).53
Original comorbidities
 Hypertension61 (40)34 (37).6416 (52)12 (39).44
 Diabetes34 (23)10 (11).034 (13)7 (23).51
 CVD15 (10)13 (14).452 (7)2 (7)1
 COPD9 (6)3 (3).5101 (3)1
Vital signs
 T, °C37.0 (36.2–38)36.7 (36.4–37.3).0237 (36.5–37.6)37 (36.5–37.3).93
 Breathing, rpm22 (20–25)20 (20–22)< .0121 (20–24)20 (20–22).08
 Pulse, bpm92 (82–105)88 (78–98).0395 (78–106)93 (82–100).51
 SpO2/FiO2259 (121–303)297 (279–388)< .01291 (212–452)294 (246–396).57
Laboratory findings (WBCs, lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, × 109/L)
 WBCs6.7 (4.9–8.9)5.0 (4.0–6.5)< .016.6 (4.0–8.6)5.1 (3.5–6.8).12
 Lymphocytes0.7 (0.5–1.0)1.2 (0.9–1.6)< .010.9 (0.5–1.3)1.1 (0.6–1.2).64
 Neutrophils5.4 (3.6–7.6)3.2 (2.4–4.2)< .015.2 (2.6–7.4)3.5 (2.3–4.7).09
 Platelets181 (138–248)224 (170–298)< .01168 (138–214)206 (155–230).23
 HGB, g/L130 (117–141)127 (117–139).42128 (118–138)125 (117–133).56
Organ function damage
 ARDS81 (54)6 (7)< .0112 (39)6 (19).16
 Septic shock69 (46)2 (2)< .018 (26)2 (7).08
 Myocardial infarction64 (42)3 (3)< .0110 (32)3 (10).06
 AKI46 (31)5 (5)< .018 (26)3 (10).18
 DIC39 (26)2 (2)< .016 (19)2 (7).26
 Liver injury28 (19)6 (7)< .017 (23)3 (10).3
Treatment
 Anti-bacteria142 (94)42 (45)< .0125 (81)26 (84)1
 Gamma globulin84 (56)8 (9)< .0111 (36)8 (26).58
 MV78 (52)4 (4)< .0111 (36)4 (13).08
 Muscle relaxant25 (17)0< .014 (13)0.12
 HFNC21 (14)1 (1)< .016 (19)1 (3).11
  1. Abbreviations: CVD cardiovascular disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, WBCs white blood cells, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, AKI acute kidney injury, DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation, MV mechanical ventilation, HFNC high flow nasal cannula
  2. Continuous variables were described as the median (IQR) while categorical variables were expressed as frequencies (%). Hypothesis testing using Fisher’s exact test for categorical data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data