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Table 3 Characteristics of the inciting septic insult by site of infection. APACHE Acute Physiology Age Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment

From: Phenotypic heterogeneity by site of infection in surgical sepsis: a prospective longitudinal study

 Overall, n = 316Abdominal, n = 140 (44%)Pulmonary, n = 59 (19%)S/ST, n = 56 (18%)GU, n = 40 (12%)Vascular, n = 21 (7%)p value
Sepsis present on admission (≤ 48 h), n (%)204 (65)94 (67)17 (29)49 (87)31 (78)13 (62)< 0.01
Hospital-acquired sepsis (> 48 h), n (%)112 (35)46 (33)42 (71)7 (13)9 (22)8 (38)< 0.01
Sepsis severity, n (%)
 Sepsis95 (30)38 (27)18 (30)14 (25)16 (40)9 (43)0.31
 Severe sepsis138 (44)61 (44)28 (48)25 (45)16 (40)8 (38)0.94
 Septic shock83 (26)41 (29)13 (22)17 (30)8 (20)4 (19)0.59
Max lactate (within 24 h), median (25th, 75th)2.1 (1.5,3.4)2.7 (1.8,4.2)1.5 (1.2,2.2)2 (1.4,2.8)2.5 (1.7,3.8)2.1 (1.3,3)< 0.01
Max lactate (within 24 h) > 2, n (%)169 (54)89 (64)19 (32)26 (46)24 (60)11 (52)< 0.01
APACHE II score (24 h), median (25th, 75th)17 (11,23)17 (12, 23)20 (14,25)16 (10, 22)13 (10,20)21 (13,24)0.02
SOFA score (24 h), median (25th, 75th)7 (5,10)7 (4, 10)8 (6, 10)6 (5, 10)6 (4, 8)8 (6,9)< 0.05
Emergency surgery within 24 h, n (%)160 (51)64 (46)27 (46)45 (80)15 (38)9 (43)< 0.01
Sepsis source control procedure, n (%)215 (68)124 (89)4 (7)53 (95)18 (45)16 (76)< 0.01
 Invasive procedures152 (71)87 (70)3 (75)45 (85)1 (6)16 (100)< 0.01
 Non-invasive procedures63 (29)37 (30)1 (25)8 (15)17 (94)0 (0)< 0.01
Culture positive, n (%)197 (62)65 (46)39 (66)41 (73)33 (83)19 (90)< 0.01
 Bacterial—gram positive47 (24)14 (21)10 (26)14 (34)2 (6)7 (37)< 0.01
 Bacterial—gram negative80 (41)20 (31)25 (64)4 (10)23 (70)8 (42)< 0.01
 Fungal10 (5)5 (8)0 (0)1 (2)3 (9)1 (5)0.20
 Polymicrobial60 (30)26 (40)4 (10)22 (54)5 (15)3 (16)< 0.01