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Table 2 Study characteristics for ARDS mortality

From: A systematic review of biomarkers multivariately associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome development and mortality

Study Study design Setting ARDS definition Outcome Total (n) Non-survivors (n) Age Gender, male n (%) Variables in multivariate analysis Sample moment
Adamzik 2013 [58] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 30 days 47 17 44 ± 13 32 (68. 1%) SAPS II score, gender, lung injury score, ECMO, CVVHD, BMI, CRP, procalcitonin Within 24 h following ICU admission
Ahasic 2012 [24] Prospective cohort Multicentre AECC 60 days 175 78 60.7 ± 17.6 102 (58.3%) Gender, BMI, cirrhosis, Diabetes, need for red cell transfusion, sepsis, septic shock, trauma Within 48 h following ICU admission
Amat 2000 [26] Prospective cohort Two centre AECC ARDS 1 month after ICU discharge 21 11 54 ± 16 15 (71.4%) Not specified Day 0 ICU
Bajwa 2008 [59] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 60 day 177 70 68.3 ± 15.3 99 (55.9%) APACHE III score Within 48 h following ARDS onset
Bajwa 2009 [60] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 60 days 177 70 62.5 (IQR 29.0) 100 (56.5%) APACHE III score Within 48 h following ARDS onset
Bajwa 2013 [61] RCT (FACTT) Multicentre AECC 60 days 826 NR 48 (38–59 IQR) 442 (53.5%) APACHE III score Days 0 and 3
Calfee 2008 [62] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC 180 days 676 NR 51 ± 17 282 (41.7%) Age, gender, APACHE III score, sepsis, or trauma Day 0
Calfee 2009 [63] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC Hospital 778 272 51 ± 17 459 (59.0%) Age, PaO2/FiO2, APACHE III score, sepsis or trauma Day 0
Calfee 2011 [64] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC 90 days 547 186 50 ± 16 227 (41.5%) APACHE III score, tidal volume Day 0
Calfee 2012 [65] RCT (FACTT) Multicentre AECC 90 days 931 261 50 ± 16 498 (53.5%) Age, APACHE III score, fluid management strategy Day 0
Calfee 2015 [66] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC Hospital 100 31 58 ± 11 52 (52.0%) APACHE III score Day 2 following ICU admission
Calfee 2015 [66] RCT (FACTT) Multicentre AECC 90 days 853 259 51 ± 15 444 (52.1%) APACHE III score Within 48 h following ARDS onset
Cartin-Ceba 2015 [67] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC In-hospital 100 36 62.5 (51–75 IQR) 54 (54.0%) Acute physiology score of APACHE III score, DNR status, McCabe score Within 24 h following diagnosis
Chen 2009 [68] Prospective cohort Single centre * 28 days 59 26 62 ± 19 35 (59.3%) APACHE II score, biomarkers Within 24 h following diagnosis
Clark 1995 [69] Prospective cohort Single centre ** Mortality 117 48 43.4 ± 15.4 75 (64.1%) Lung injury score, risk factor for ARDS, lavage protein concentration Day 3 following disease onset
Clark 2013 [70] RCT (FACTT) Multicentre AECC 60 days 400 106 47 (37–57 IQR) 210 (52.5%) Age, gender, ethnicity, baseline serum creatinine, ARDS risk factor Day 1 following inclusion
Dolinay 2012 [71] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC In-hospital 28 17 54 ± 14.5 13 (46.4%) APACHE II score Within 48 h following ICU admission
Eisner 2003 [72] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC 180 days 565 195 51 ± 17 332 (58.8%) Ventilation strategy, APACHE III score, PaO2/FiO2, creatinine, platelet count Day 0 following inclusion
Forel 2015 [73] Prospective cohort Multicentrer Berlin < 200 mmHg ICU 51 NR (for ICU) 60 ± 13 40 (78.4%) Lung injury score Day 3
Forel 2018 [74] Prospective cohort Single centre Berlin < 200 mmHg 60 days 62 21 59 ± 15 47 (75.8%) Gender, SOFA score, LIS score Day 3 following onset of ARDS
Guervilly 2011 [75] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 28 days 52 21 58 ± 17 39 (75.0%) Not specified Within 24 h following diagnosis
Kim 2019 [76] Retrospective cohort Single centre Berlin In-hospital 97 63 67.2 (64.3–70.1) 63 (64.3%) APACHE II score, SOFA score, SAPS II score Within 48 h following admission
Lee 2019 [77] Retrospective cohort Single centre Berlin In-hospital 237 154 69 (61–74 IQR) 166 (70.0%) Age, diabetes mellitus, non-pulmonary source, APACHE II score, SOFA Within 24 h following intubation
Lesur 2006 [78] Prospective cohort Multicentre AECC 28 days 78 29 63 ± 16 48 (61.5%) Age, PaCO2, APACHE II score Within 48 h following onset of ARDS
Li 2019 [79] Retrospective cohort Single centre Berlin 28 days 224 70 64 (46–77 IQR) 140 (62.5%) APACHE II score, age, gender, BMI, smoking status, alcohol abusing status, risk factors, comorbidities Within 24 h following ICU admission
Lin 2010 [80] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC ARDS 28 days 63 27 75 (57–83 IQR) 38 (60.3%) Age, lung injury score, SOFA score, APACHE II score, CRP, biomarkers Within 24 h following ARDS onset
Lin 2012 [81] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 30 days 87 27 61 (56–70 IQR) 42 (48.3%) APACHE II, Lung injury score, creatinine, biomarkers At inclusion
Lin 2013 [82] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 30 days 78 22 63 (54–68 IQR) 45 (57.7%) Age, APACHE II score, Lung injury score, PaO2/FiO2 Within 10 h following diagnosis
Madtes 1998 [83] Prospective cohort Single centre *** In-hospital 74 33 38 (19–68 Range) 50 (67.6%) Age, PCP III levels, neutrophils, lung injury score Day 3 following ARDS onset
McClintock 2006 [84] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC Mortality 579 NR 51 ± 17 333 (57.5%) Ventilator group assignment Day 0 following inclusion
McClintock 2007 [85] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC Mortality 576 NR 52 ± 17 328 (56.9%) Gender, ventilator group assignment, eGFR, age, APACHE III score, vasopressor use, sepsis Day 0 following inclusion
McClintock 2008 [86] Prospective cohort Two centre AECC In-hospital 50 21 55 ± 16 28 (56.0%) Age, gender, SAPS II Within 48 h following diagnosis
Menk 2018 [87] Retrospective cohort Single centre Berlin ICU 404 182 50 (37–61 IQR) 265 (65.6%) Age, gender, APACHE II score, SOFA, severe ARDS, peak airway pressure, pulmonary compliance Within 24 h following admission
Metkus 2017 [88] RCT (ALVEOLI, FACTT) Multicentre AECC 60 days 1057 NR 50.4 549 (51.9%) Age, gender, trial group assignment Within 24 h following inclusion
Mrozek 2016 [89] Prospective cohort Multicentre AECC 90 days 119 42 57 ± 17 82 (68.9%) Age, gender, SAPS II score, PaO2/FiO2, sepsis Within 24 h following inclusion
Ong 2010 [90] Prospective cohort Two centre AECC 28-day in-hospital 24 NR 51 ± 21 30 (53.6%) Age, gender, PaO2/FiO2, tidal volume, plateau pressure, APACHE II score At inclusion
Parsons 2005 [91] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC 180 days or discharge 562 196 NR NR Ventilation strategy, APACHE III score, PaO2/FiO2, creatinine, platelet count, vasopressor use At inclusion
Parsons 2005 [92] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC In-hospital 781 276 51.6 ± 17.3 319 (40.1%) Ventilation strategy, APACHE III score, PaO2/FiO2, creatinine, platelet count, vasopressor use Day 0
Quesnel 2012 [93] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 28 days 92 37 67 (49–74 IQR) 61 (66.3%) Age, SAPS II score, malignancy, SOFA score, BAL characteristics NR
Rahmel 2018 [94] Retrospective cohort Single centre AECC 30 days 119 37 43.7 ± 13.3 71 (59.7%) Age, SOFA score Within 24 h following admission
Reddy 2019 [95] Prospective cohort Single centre Berlin 30 days 39 19 55 (47.5-61.5) 25 (64.1%) Not specified Within 24 h of ARDS diagnosis
Rivara 2012 [96] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 60 days 177 70 71.5 (59–80 IQR) 98 (55.4%) APACHE III score Within 48 h following diagnosis
Rogers 2019 [97] RCT (SAILS) Multicentre AECC 60 days 683 NR 56 (43–65) 335 (49.0%) Age, race, APACHE III score, GFR, randomization, shock Within 48 h following ARDS diagnosis
Sapru 2015 [98] RCT (FACTT) Multicentre AECC 60 days 449 109 49.8 ± 15.6 242 (53.9%) Age, gender, APACHE III score, pulmonary sepsis, fluid management strategy Upon inclusion
Suratt 2009 [99] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC In-hospital 645 222 51 ± 17 381 (59.1%) Ventilation strategy, age, gender Day 0
Tang 2014 [100] Prospective cohort Multicentre Berlin In-hospital 42 20 72.5 ± 10.8 27 (64.3%) APACHE II score, PaO2/FiO2, CRP, WBC, procalcitonin Within 24 h following diagnosis
Tsangaris 2009 [101] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 28 days 52 27 66.1 ± 16.9 32 (59.6%) APACHE II score, age, genotype Within 48 h following admission
Tsangaris 2017 [102] Prospective cohort Single centre NR 28 days 53 28 64.6 ± 16.8 33 (62.3%) Lung injury score Within 48 h following diagnosis
Tsantes 2013 [103] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC 28 days 69 34 64.4 ± 17.9 43 (62.3%) Age, gender, APACHE II score, SOFA score, pulmonary parameters, serum lactate Within 48 h following diagnosis
Tseng 2014 [104] Prospective cohort Single centre AECC ARDS ICU 56 16 70.6 ± 9.2 31 (55.4%) APACHE II score, SOFA score, SAPS II score Day 1 following ICU admission
Wang 2017 [105] Prospective cohort Multicentre Berlin 60 days 167 62 76.5 (19–95 range) 112 (67.1%) Age, gender, APACHE II score Day 1 following diagnosis
Wang 2018 [106] Retrospective cohort Single centre AECC Mortality 247 146 62 (48–73 IQR) 162 (65.6%) Age, cirrhosis, creatinine, PaO2/FiO2 Within 24 h following diagnosis
Ware 2004 [107] RCT (ARMA) Multicentre AECC In-hospital 559 193 51 ± 17 332 (59.4%) Ventilator strategy, APACHE III score, PaO2/FiO2, creatinine, platelet count Day 0 of inclusion
Xu 2017 [108] Retrospective cohort Single centre Berlin 28 days 63 27 54 (42–67 IQR) 37 (58.7%) APACHE II score, PaO2/FiO2, procalcitonin Within 48 following admission
     Total 15,344 3914     
       36.0%     
  1. *Respiratory failure requiring positive pressure ventilation, PF ratio < 200 mmHg, bilateral pulmonary infiltration on chest X-ray, no clinical evidence of left atrial hypertension
  2. **PF ratio < 150 mmHg, PF < 200 mmHg with 5 PEEP, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates, pulmonary artery wedge pressure < 18 mmHg, no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure
  3. ***PF ratio < 150 mmHg, PF ratio < 200 mmHg with 5 cmH2O PEEP, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates, pulmonary artery wedge pressure < 18 mmHg, or no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure
  4. Some studies included patients from the same cohort
  5. Abbreviations: AECC American European Consensus Conference definition of ARDS, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BAL bronchoalveolar lavage, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, CVVHD continuous veno-venous haemodialysis, DNR do not resuscitate, ECMO extra corporeal membrane oxygenation, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, ICU intensive care unit, PCP procollagen, No. number, SAPS simplified acute physiology score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, WBC white blood cell count