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Table 1 Characteristics of studies

From: Structural equation modeling the “control of gut overgrowth” in the prevention of ICU-acquired Gram-negative infection

 Observational studiesInfection prevention studies 
No interventionNon-decontaminationAnti-septicTAP ± PPAP/EAP
Study characteristics
 SourcesTable S1Table S2Table S3Table S4
 Number of studiesa111451348
 Origin from systematic reviewb4638738
 North American ICUsc321063
 LOS > 7 days8837937
 MV for > 48 h for < 90%d211511
 Trauma ICUse228214
 PPAP use in the control groupf0018
 Study publication year (range)1987–20141987–20172000–20181984–2018
Group characteristics
 Numbers of patients per control group (median; IQR)g279
135–707
75
61–161
96
36–217
86
31–128
Prevention effect size (odds ratio; 95% CI; number of studies)
 VAPNA0.73; 0.66–0.80 (45)
(see Fig S2)
0.89; 0.72–1.11 (10)
(see Fig S3)
0.38; 0.33–0.44 (37)h
(see Fig S4)
 BacteremiaNA0.99; 0.71–1.39 (6)
(see Fig S5)
0.72; 0.66–0.79 (10)
(see Fig S6)
0.69; 0.62–0.76 (33)i
(see Fig S7)
  1. aSeveral studies had more than one control and/or intervention group. Hence, the number of groups does not equal the number of studies
  2. bStudies that were sourced from 16 systematic reviews (references in web-only supplementary)
  3. cStudy originating from an ICU in Canada of the USA
  4. dStudies for which less than 90% of patients were reported to receive > 48 h of MV
  5. eTrauma ICU arbitrarily defined as an ICU with more than 50% of admissions for trauma
  6. fUse of PPAP for control group patients. PPAP is protocolized parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis
  7. gData is median and inter-quartile range (IQR)
  8. hVAP prevention effect size for studies not including versus including PPAP in the antibiotic intervention was 0.44; 0.36–0.55 (n = 13) and 0.34; 0.28–0.41 (n = 24), respectively (see Fig S4)
  9. iBacteremia prevention effect size for studies not including versus including PPAP in the antibiotic intervention was 0.77; 0.68–0.88 (n = 10) and 0.57; 0.48–0.67 (n = 22), respectively (see Fig S7)