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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: COVID-19 patients exhibit less pronounced immune suppression compared with bacterial septic shock patients

CharacteristicsAll patients (n = 24)
Age, years69 [61–73]
Sex
 Female6 (25%)
 Male18 (75%)
Body mass index, kg/m227.5 [24.3–31.1]
Any comorbidities19 (79%)
 Diabetes7 (29%)
 Hypertension6 (25%)
 Cardiovascular disease7 (29%)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease3 (13%)
 Malignancy10 (42%)
 Chronic liver disease0 (0%)
 Chronic kidney disease1 (4%)
 Immunocompromised*5 (17%)
APACHE II17 [11–21]
Time from illness onset to ICU admission, days11 [8–13]
Medication use
 Norepinephrine use20 (83%)
  Maximum infusion rate in first 24 h on ICU, μg/kg/min0.11 [0.07–0.21]
 Corticosteroids1 (4%)
 Remdesivir3 (13%)
 Chloroquine19 (79%)
 Anakinra1 (4%)
Symptoms and (laboratory) parameters
 Heart rate, bpm83 [71–112]
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg77 [72–81]
 Fluid balance in first 24 h on ICU, mL1348 [680–1881]
 Urine output in first 24 h on ICU, mL1105 [888–1486]
 Creatinine, μmol/L86 [70–133]
 Dialysis0 (0%)
 Mechanical ventilation (invasive)24 (100%)
  Tidal volume, mL/kg5.3 [4.4–6.0]
  Respiratory rate, bpm21 [20–24]
  PEEP, cm H2O12 [10–14]
  FiO2, %50 [41–60]
 P/F ratio164 [136–189]
  100–20020 (83%)
  200–3004 (17%)
 Thrombocytes, 109/L239 [151–274]
 Leukocytes, 109/L8.2 [5.3–11.6]
 C-reactive protein, mg/L301 [157–316]
 Procalcitonin, μg/L0.72 [0.29–3.66]
 Ferritin, μg/L1216 [488–1834]
 Lactate (highest over last 24 h), mmol/L1.2 [1.1–1.7]
 D-dimer, ng/mL3075 [1780–4598]
 Troponin I, ng/L23 [13–44]
 Albumin, g/L20 [17–22]
 Alanine aminotransferase, U/L34 [21–41]
 Aspartate aminotransferase, U/L48 [31–73]
 Creatinine kinase, U/L136 [56–357]
 Lactate dehydrogenase, U/L398 [303–499]
Outcome parameters
 Secondary infections0 (0%)
 Death2 (8%)
  1. Data were obtained at study inclusion and are presented as n (%) or median [IQR]
  2. *Chronic use of immunosuppressive medication