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Table 1 Demographic, comorbidities, epidemiological characteristics, and clinical and laboratory findings of patients with confirmed COVID-19 at admission

From: SARS-CoV-2 viral load in sputum correlates with risk of COVID-19 progression

VariablesTotal (n = 92)Mild-moderate at admissionSevere at admission (n = 30)P value*
Persistent mild-moderate during hospitalization (n = 51)Mild-moderate to severe during hospitalization (n = 11)P value#Total (n = 62)
Demographic data
 Age (years)55 ± 1649 ± 1359 ± 170.03251 ± 1563 ± 160.001
 Sex
  Male57 (62%)26 (51%)8 (72.7%) 34 (54.8%)23 (76.7%) 
  Female35 (38%)25 (49%)3 (27.3%)0.18928 (45.2%)7 (23.3%)0.043
 Occupation
  Agricultural worker45 (48.9%)25 (49%)7 (63.6%) 32 (51.6%)13 (43.3%) 
  Self-employed21 (22.8%)15 (29.4%)2 (18.7%) 17 (27.4%)4 (13.3%) 
  Employee8 (8.7%)5 (9.8%)0 (0%) 5 (8.1%)3 (10%) 
  Retired17 (18.5%)5 (9.8%)2 (18.2%) 7 (11.3%)10 (33.3%) 
  Students1 (1.1%)1 (2%)0 (0%)0.6691 (1.6%)0 (0%)0.082
 Smoking history
  Yes16 (17.4%)7 (13.7%)3 (27.3%) 17 (27.4%)6 (20%) 
  No76 (82.6%)44 (86.3%)8 (72.7%)0.26845 (72.6%)24 (80%)0.441
Comorbidities
 Hypertension33 (35.9%)10 (19.6%)7 (63.6%)0.00317 (27.4%)16 (53.3%)0.016
 Diabetes9 (9.8%)1 (2%)2 (18.2%)0.0243 (4.8%)6 (20%)0.022
 Cardiovascular disease8 (8.7%)2 (3.9%)1 (9.1%)0.4723 (4.8%)5 (16.7%)0.060
 Chronic liver diseases4 (4.3%)2 (3.9%)1 (9.1%)0.4723 (4.8%)1 (3.3%)0.741
 Chronic renal diseases3 (3.3%)0 (0%)1 (9.1%)0.0311 (1.6%)2 (6.7%)0.203
 Others6 (6.5%)0 (0%)2 (18.2%)0.0022 (3.2%)4 (13.3%)0.067
Epidemiological characteristics
 Exposure to confirmed cases46 (50%)30 (58.8%)5 (45.5%)0.42135 (56.5%)11 (36.7%)0.077
 Family cluster27 (29.3%)15 (29.4%)4 (36.4%)0.65319 (30.6%)8 (26.7%)0.696
 Recent travel or residence to/in epidemic area25 (27.2%)11 (21.6%)4 (36.4%)0.30315 (24.2%)10 (33.3%)0.358
Signs and symptoms
 Fever84 (91.3%)45 (88.2%)11 (100%)0.23556 (90.3%)28 (93.3%)0.633
 Cough58 (63%)32 (62.7%)7 (63.6%)0.95639 (62.9%)13 (43.3%)0.968
 Fatigue6 (6.5%)1 (2%)2 (18.2%)0.0243 (4.8%)3 (10%)0.350
 Diarrhea7 (7.6%)1 (2%)1 (9.1%)0.2292 (3.2%)5 (16.7%)0.023
 Nausea and vomiting4 (4.3%)3 (5.9%)1 (9.1%)0.6974 (6.5%)0 (0%)0.157
 Shortness of breath25 (27.2%)2 (3.9%)4 (36.4%)0.0016 (9.7%)19 (63.3%)< 0.001
 Time to admission3 (4)4 (3)1 (4)0.0114 (4)1 (4)0.211
 Time to confirmed diagnosis5 (5)5 (4)4 (4)0.1605 (4)3 (6)0.239
Laboratory parameters
 WBC6.5 (5.9)5.2 (4.1)7.5 ± 3.40.1885.4 (4.5)10.8 ± 5.6< 0.001
 Lymphocyte0.8 (0.6)0.97 ± 0.470.7 (0.4)0.1470.9 (0.7)0.5 (0.5)0.001
 Platelet191 (76)193 (83)170 ± 560.159192 (84)191 ± 450.851
 CRP27 (37)13 (27)37 ± 270.03616 (30)39 (29)< 0.001
 ALT23 (22)23 (24)17 (15)0.33822 (23)23 (16)0.723
 AST22 (16)21 (12)21 (18)1.00021 (12)26 (23)0.236
 Cr75 (25)71 ± 2684 (39)0.05473 (28)84 (33)0.019
 INR0.98 (0.09)0.97 ± 0.080.97 (0.04)0.5070.97 ± 0.061.01 ± 0.090.050
 Bilirubin10.8 (6.0)12.2 (5.0)10.0 (6.0)0.91210.6 (5.0)12.6 (9.0)0.097
 LDH281 ± 105227 (103)279 ± 1010.376229 (113)339 (121)< 0.001
 CK70 (76)63 (61)76 (60)0.49564 (58)97 (172)0.011
 Urea nitrogen5.3 (3.7)4.4 (1.7)6.8 (6.9)< 0.0014.6 (2.2)7.7 (4.2)< 0.001
 CT scan
  Normal3 (3.3%)3 (5.9%)0 (0%) 3 (4.8%)0 (0%) 
  Local lesion5 (5.4%)4 (7.8%)0 (0%) 4 (6.5%)1 (3.3%) 
  Multi-lesions84 (91.3%)44 (86.3%)11 (100%)1.00055 (88.7%)29 (96.7%)1.000
 ICU admission27 (29.3%)0 (0%)8 (72.7%)< 0.0018 (12.9%)19 (63.3%)< 0.001
  1. Data are expressed as number (percent), mean ± standard deviation (SD), or median (IQR)
  2. #P values comparing data between patients becoming severe and those who did not during hospitalization by the Mann-Whitney U test, chi-squared test, or Fisher’s exact test
  3. *P values comparing data between mild-moderate patients and severe patients at admission