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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients

From: Urinary cell cycle arrest biomarkers and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) to detect acute kidney injury in the critically ill: a post hoc laboratory analysis on the FINNAKI cohort

 Data availableAll patientsAKI stage 2 or 3 at 24 h (n = 49)AKI stage 0 or 1 at 24 h (n = 611)p value
Age (years)66064 [53–73]68 [57–77]64 [52–73]0.038
Male sex660410/660 (62.1%)35/49 (71.4%)375/611 (61.4%)0.172
BMI (kg/m2)65826.1 [23.4–29.4]26.3 [24.4–30.9]26.1 [23.4–29.4]0.275
Baseline creatinine (μmol/L)39375 [61–95]81 [68–107]75 [60–93]0.028
Baseline Cr with missing values imputed* (μmol/L)66082 [69–95]90 [74–99]81 [69–95]0.058
Diabetes mellitus660139/660 (21.2%)11/49 (22.4%)128/611 (20.9%)0.855
Arteriosclerosis65090/650 (13.6%)10/48 (20.8%)80/602 (13.3%)0.189
CKD65941/659 (6.2%)4/49 (8.2%)37/610 (6.1%)0.535
Chronic liver disease65420/654 (3.0%)1/49 (2.0%)19/605 (3.1%)> 0.999
Hypertension652304/652 (46.1%)24/49 (49.0%)280/603 (46.4%)0.767
Systolic heart failure65161/651 (9.2%)6/48 (12.5%)55/603 (9.1%)0.438
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease65673/656 (11.1%)7/49 (14.3%)66/607 (10.9%)0.477
Pre-ICU AKI risk factors**
 Sepsis660144/660 (21.8%)14/49 (28.6%)130/611 (21.3%)0.279
 Hypovolemia657179/657 (27.1%)23/49 (46.9%)156/608 (25.7%)0.002
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation66086/660 (13.0%)6/49 (12.2%)80/611 (13.1%)> 0.999
 Massive transfusion66016/660 (2.4%)4/49 (8.2%)12/611 (2.0%)0.025
 Acute liver failure66010/660 (1.5%)3/49 (6.1%)7/611 (1.1%)0.032
 Cardiogenic shock66019/660 (2.9%)7/49 (14.3%)12/611 (2.0%)< 0.001
 Radiocontrast657189/657 (28.6%)14/48 (29.2%)175/609 (28.7%)> 0.999
 Diuretics639190/639 (28.8%)17/47 (36.25%)173/592 (29.2%)0.323
 Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker645145/645 (22.5%)13/48 (27.1%)132/597 (22.1%)0.472
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug62261/622 (9.8%)5/45 (11.1%)56/577 (9.7%)0.793
 Hydroxyethyl starch64578/645 (12.1%)17/49 (34.7%)61/596 (10.2%)< 0.001
 Peptidoglycan antibiotic65928/659 (4.2%)5/49 (10.2%)23/610 (3.8%)0.049
 Emergency admission660635/660 (96.2%)44/49 (89.8%)591/611 (96.7%)0.031
 Surgical admission660191/660 (29.1%)22/49 (44.9%)170/611 (27.8%)0.014
Admitted from
 Operation room or recovery660177/660 (26.8%)22/49 (44.9%)155/611 (25.4%)0.004
 Emergency department660272/660 (41.2%)8/49 (16.3%)264/611 (43.2%)< 0.001
 Ward660131/660 (19.8%)15/49 (30.6%)116/611 (19.0%)0.062
 Other ICU/high-dependency unit/others66080/660 (12.1%)4/49 (8.2%)76/611 (12.4%)0.497
 SAPS II (24 h)66038 [29–49]52 [37–63]37 [28–48]< 0.001
 SOFA (24 h)6607 [4–9]10 [8–13]6 [4–9]< 0.001
 Mechanical ventilation during ICU stay660462/660 (70.0%)43/49 (87.8%)419/611 (68.6%)0.003
 Norepinephrine (within 24 h)660358/660 (54.2%)43/49 (87.8%)315/611 (51.6%)< 0.001
  1. *MDRD equation assuming GRF ≥ 75 mL/min/1.73 m2. Imputed for 16 patients with endpoint+ and 251 with endpoint−
  2. **Pre-ICU AKI risk factors if present in 48 h preceding ICU admission