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Table 1 Characteristics of study population per subphenotype

From: Two subphenotypes of septic acute kidney injury are associated with different 90-day mortality and renal recovery

 Subphenotype 1 (n = 133)Subphenotype 2 (n = 168)p value
Age, years (SD)64 (15)65 (15)0.58
Sex, male88 (66%)97 (58%)0.14
BMI, kg/m2 (SD)30.3 (8.5)27.3 (5.1)< 0.001
Operative admission28 (21.2%)51 (30.4%)0.074
Diabetes mellitus44 (33.1%)44 (26.2%)0.19
Chronic liver failure7 (5.3%)3 (1.8%)0.098
Chronic kidney disease17 (13.1%)7 (4.2%)0.005
Baseline creatinine, mmol/L (SD)*91.1 (55.9)86.7 (50.3)0.55
Admission origin  0.49
 Operation room/recovery28 (21.1%)48 (28.6%) 
 Emergency room55 (41.4%)60 (35.7%) 
 Ward39 (29.3%)48 (28.6%) 
 Other ICU/high-dependency unit/other11 (8.3%)12 (7.1%) 
Timing of AKI  0.94
 Within 24 h73 (54.9%)93 (55.4%) 
 Within 48 h60 (45.1%)75 (44.6%)
Clinical variables on admission
 Urinary tract infection12 (9.0%)20 (11.9%)0.42
 Pneumonia26 (19.5%)25 (14.9%)0.28
 Mechanical ventilation72 (54.1%)78 (46.4%)0.18
 Vasopressors, any64 (48.1%)107 (63.7%)0.007
 KDIGO AKI stage  0.37
  Stage 163 (47.4%)67 (39.9%) 
  Stage 222 (16.5%)26 (15.5%) 
  Stage 335 (26.3%)60 (35.7%) 
 Modified SOFA on admission (SD)6.0 (2.6)6.4 (2.5)0.20
 APACHE II score (SD)27.3 (9.4)27.8 (8.6)0.66
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg (SD)75 (21)74 (22)0.58
Biochemical variables on admission
 Leukocyte count, × 109/L (SD)12.1 (6.4)14.3 (9.6)0.027
 Platelet count, × 109/L (SD)232 (125)202 (143)0.064
 Haematocrit (SD)0.35 (0.07)0.35 (0.08)0.90
 CRP, nmol/L (SD)124 (111)234 (143)< 0.001
 pH (SD)7.3 (0.2)7.3 (0.1)0.78
 Highest lactate, mmol/L (SD)4.1 (4.5)4.5 (3.6)0.47
 Base excess, lowest (SD)− 6.2 (9.1)− 8.3 (6.7)0.039
 Creatinine, μmol/L (SD)213 (230)212 (181)0.97
Treatment
 Fluid balance at 72 h, mL (IQR)6738 (1868–10,169)8286 (4202–13,671)0.012
 Vasopressor load, μg/kg/min (IQR)0.18 (0.04–0.44)0.28 (0.12–0.69)0.009
 Renal replacement therapy31 (23.3%)66 (39.3%)0.003
Outcomes
 SOFA score on day 2 (SD)6.3 (3.8)8.3 (4.4)< 0.001
 SOFA score on day 3 (SD)6.1 (3.7)7.3 (4.3)0.025
 Renal recovery on day 585 (63.9%)78 (46.4%)0.003
 In-hospital mortality25 (18.8%)60 (35.7%)0.001
 90-day mortality39 (29.3%)68 (40.5%)0.045
  1. Description: Data are presented as numbers (percentages) or mean (SD)/median (IQR). Vasopressors included here are norepinephrine, dobutamine, and epinephrine
  2. BMI body mass index, KDIGO Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome, AKI acute kidney injury, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation, CRP C-reactive protein
  3. *Baseline serum creatinine was available for 69% of patients and, if missing, estimated using the MDRD formula