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Table 2 Summary of findings for adverse events by team composition

From: Success and complications by team composition for prehospital paediatric intubation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome (total no. of studies)Intubator group (total no. of children)Pooled prevalence (%, 95% CI)Intra-group heterogeneity (I2, P value)Inter-group heterogeneity (P value)
Overall airway complications (16)Non-physician without relaxants (536)39 (28–51)82.0%, P < 0.001P < 0.001
Non-physician with relaxants (667)30 (23–38)71.5%, P = 0.01
Physician with relaxants (772)10 (3–22)94.4%, P < 0.001
Oesophageal intubations (23)Non-physician without relaxants (3136)4 (0–10)92.3%, P < 0.001P < 0.001
Non-physician with relaxants (1563)0 (0–1)58.1%, P = 0.02
Physician with relaxants (815)0 (0–0)0%, P = 0.98
Endobronchial intubations (13)Non-physician without relaxants (311)11 (6–17)35.8%, P = 0.17P = 0.15
Non-physician with relaxants (610)10 (4–19)85.8%, P < 0.001
Physician with relaxants (260)3 (0–11)85.1%, P < 0.001
Pooled (1181)7 (3–12)86.2%, P < 0.001
Hypoxia (6)Non-physician with relaxants (183)0 (0–1)NRP < 0.001
Physician with relaxants (468)7 (3–11)94.4%, P < 0.001
Aspiration (8)Non-physician with relaxants (587)12 (4–23)90.6%, P < 0.001P < 0.001
Physician with relaxants (206)0 (0–2)0%, P = 0.47
≥ 3 intubation attempts (13)Non-physician without relaxants (96)16 (6–28)NRP < 0.001
Non-physician with relaxants (816)6 (3–10)69.7%, P = 0.01
Physician with relaxants (544)1 (0–4)75.6%, P = 0.01
  1. All outcome comparisons, except endobronchial intubation, had large inter-group heterogeneity (i.e. large variations in results between groups) preventing overall pooling of results. NR not reported as less than 3 groups, no intra-group heterogeneity reported