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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies. Oesophageal intubation refers specifically to unrecognised oesophageal intubation. All physician teams utilised muscle relaxants

From: Success and complications by team composition for prehospital paediatric intubation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, yearStudy countryInclusionNo. of childrenGroupTransport modeOutcomes assessedOverall risk of bias
Aijian 1989 [17]USA< 19 years, arrested patients only28Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success, overall airway complication, oesophageal intubation, endobronchial intubationModerate
Andrew 2015 [18]Australia< 16 years16Non-physician, with relaxantsHelicopterOverall and first look success rate, multiple attemptsLow
Babl 2001 [19]USA< 19 years15Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success rateLow
Baker 2009 [20]USA< 18 years148Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall and first look success rate, overall complication rateModerate
Bankole 2011 [6]USA< 13 years, traumatic head injury only31Non-physician, no relaxantsHelicopter and roadOverall success and airway complication rate, oesophageal intubation, multiple attemptsLow
Boswell 1995 [21]USA< 14 years, unconscious trauma patients transported by helicopter only58Non-physician, no relaxantsHelicopterOverall intubation success rateModerate
Brownstein 1996 [22]USA< 16 years, successful field intubations only355Non-physician, with relaxantsRoadOverall complication, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation rate, aspiration rateModerate
Burns 2017 [10]Australia< 16 years82PhysicianHelicopter and roadOverall intubation and first look success, overall airway complication, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation, hypoxia, aspiration, multiple attemptsLow
Burton 2003 [23]USA< 13 years137Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success rateLow
Carlson 2015 [3]USA< 18 years3049Non-physician, no relaxantsHelicopter and roadOverall intubation success rateModerate
Demaret 2016 [24]Belgium< 16 years353PhysicianRoadOverall intubation and first look successLow
Dyson 2017 [25]Australia< 15 years434Non-physician, with relaxantsRoadOverall intubation and first look successLow
Ehrlich 2004 [26]USA< 19 years, trauma only59Non-physician, with relaxantsHelicopter and roadFirst look success, overall airway complication, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation, aspiration rateModerate
Eich 2009 [1]Germany< 14 years82, 58 reported in detailPhysicianHelicopter and roadOverall intubation and first look success, overall airway complication, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation, multiple attemptsModerate
Garner 2019 [7]Australia< 16 years(a) 7, (b) 61(a) Non-physician, no relaxants; (b) physician(a) Road, (b) helicopterOverall intubation and first look success, overall airway complication, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation, hypoxia, aspiration rate, multiple attemptsLow
Garza 2005 [5]USA< 16 years, arrested patients only86Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success rateModerate
Gausche 2000 [27]USA< 12 years324Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success rate, overall airway complication, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation rateLow
Gerritse 2010 [8]Netherlands< 16 years(a) 86, (b) 214(a) Non-physician, no relaxants; (b) physician(a) Helicopter, (b) roadOverall intubation success, overall airway complication, oesophageal intubation rateLow
Hansen 2015 [28]USA< 18 years(a) 2444, (b) 408(a) Non-physician, no relaxants; (b) non-physician, with relaxantsHelicopter and roadOverall intubation success, oesophageal intubation rateModerate
Hansen 2018 [29]USA< 18 years, transported cardiac arrests only35Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success, multiple attempt rateLow
Harrison 2004 [30]USA< 13 years143Non-physician, with relaxantsHelicopter and roadOverall intubation and first look success, oesophageal intubation, hypoxia, multiple attemptsModerate
Heschl 2018 [31]Australia< 15 years87Non-physician, with relaxantsHelicopterOverall intubation and first look success, oesophageal intubation, multiple attemptsModerate
Jarvis 2019 [32]USA< 15 years(a) 406, (b) 49(a) Non-physician, no relaxants; (b) non-physician, with relaxantsHelicopter and roadFirst look successModerate
Kumar 1997 [33]USA< 16 years, arrested patients only39Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success rateModerate
Lavery 1992 [34]USA< 19 years, trauma only14Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success rateModerate
Losek 1989 [35]USA< 19 years63Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation and first look success, multiple attemptsLow
Losek 1994 [36]USA< 19 years193Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success rateLow
Martinon 2011 [37]France2–15 years, unintentional traumatic brain injury only(a) 188, (b) 108(a) Physician before guideline; (b) physician after guidelinesRoadOverall success rate, overall airway complication rates, hypoxiaModerate
Moors 2018 [38]Netherlands< 17 years(a) 79, (b) 103(a) Non-physician, no relaxants; (b) physician(a) Road, (b) helicopterOverall intubation success, oesophageal and endobronchial intubationLow
Nakayama 1990 [39]USATrauma admissions to a paediatric trauma centre14Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation success, overall airway complication rate, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation ratesModerate
Nevin 2014 [40]UK< 16 years, trauma only315PhysicianHelicopter and roadOverall intubation success, oesophageal intubation rate, multiple attemptsLow
Paul 1999 [41]USA< 13 years, trauma only6ParamedicRoadOverall intubation success rateModerate
Pointer 1989 [42]USA< 15 years36Non-physician, no relaxantsRoadOverall intubation and first look success, overall airway complication, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation, multiple attemptsLow
Prekker 2016 [43]USA< 13 years299Non-physician, with relaxantsRoadOverall intubation and first look success, overall airway complication, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation, aspiration rate, multiple attemptsLow
Schmidt 2016 [9]Switzerland< 17 years215PhysicianHelicopterOverall intubation and first look success, oesophageal intubationLow
Simons 2017 [44]Finland< 16 years34PhysicianHelicopter and roadOesophageal and endobronchial intubation rate, aspiration rateModerate
Sing 1996 [45]USA< 18 years, relaxant assisted cases only40Non-physician, with relaxantsHelicopterOverall intubation and first look success, overall airway complication, oesophageal and endobronchial intubation, hypoxia, aspiration rateLow
Tarpgaard 2015 [46]Denmark< 16 years25PhysicianHelicopter and roadOverall intubation and first look success, overall airway complication, oesophageal intubation, hypoxia, aspiration rateLow
Tollefsen 2013 [47]USA< 15 years260Non-physician, with relaxantsHelicopterOverall intubation and first look success, oesophageal intubation, multiple attemptsLow
Vilke 2002 [48]USA< 15 years324Non-physician, no relaxantsHelicopter and roadOverall intubation success, and oesophageal intubationLow