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Table 2 Short- and long-term outcomes of pediatric patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in Ontario, Canada (2009–2017)

From: Long-term survival and costs following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critically ill children—a population-based cohort study

VariableOverall (n = 342)Neonatal (n = 103)Cardiac failure (n = 169)Respiratory failure (n = 70)P value
Survival following ECMO initiation, n (%)
 To hospital discharge193 (56.4)55 (53.4)102 (60.4)36 (51.4)0.34
 7 days253 (74.0)81 (78.6)127 (75.1)45 (64.3)0.10
 30 days217 (63.5)62 (60.2)115 (68.0)40 (57.1)0.20
 1 years176 (51.5)49 (47.6)93 (55.0)34 (48.6)0.42
 2 years171 (50.0)47 (45.6)91 (53.8)33 (47.1)0.37
 5 yearsa75 (42.1)24 (42.9)38 (45.2)13 (34.2)0.51
Hospital length of stay, days, median (IQR)26 (11–61)24 (14–53)29 (11–72)21 (8–55)0.21
Ventricular assist device during hospitalization, n (%)59 (17.3)17 (16.5)29 (17.2)13 (18.6)0.94
Transplant during hospitalization, n (%)
 Heart transplant13 (3.8)*13 (7.7)*< 0.001
 Lung transplant11 (3.2)**10 (14.3)< 0.001
Discharge disposition among survivors, n (%)b0.78
 Home (without homecare)95 (49.2)26 (47.2)51 (50.0)18 (50.0) 
 Home (with homecare)97 (50.3)29 (52.7)50 (49.0)18 (50.0) 
Emergency department visit following discharge, n (%)b
 Within 30 days48 (24.9)14 (25.5)23 (22.5)11 (30.6)0.90
 Within 90 days78 (40.4)22 (40.0)42 (41.1)14 (38.9)0.66
 Within 1 year111 (57.5)27 (49.1)58 (56.9)26 (72.2)0.25
Hospital readmissions following discharge, n (%)b
 Within 30 days35 (18.1)12 (21.8)15 (14.7)8 (22.2)0.71
 Within 90 days62 (32.1)15 (27.3)33 (32.4)14 (38.9)0.53
 Within 1 year83 (43.0)18 (32.7)43 (42.2)22 (61.1)0.10
  1. Abbreviations: ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, IQR interquartile range
  2. aFive-year mortality values only include patients between 2009 and 2014 (n = 178 for “Overall,” n = 56 for “Neonatal,” n = 84 for “Cardiac failure,” n = 38 for “Respiratory failure”)
  3. bOnly includes patients who survived to hospital discharge (n = 193 for “Overall,” n = 55 for “Neonatal,” n = 102 for “Cardiac failure,” n = 36 for “Respiratory failure”)
  4. *Denotes ≤ 5 patients