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Table 1 Characteristics of pediatric patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in Ontario, Canada (2009–2016)

From: Long-term survival and costs following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critically ill children—a population-based cohort study

VariableOverall (n = 342)Neonatal (n = 103)Cardiac failure (n = 169)Respiratory failure (n = 70)
Sex, n (%)
 Male187 (54.7)66 (64.1)79 (46.7)42 (60.0)
 Female155 (45.3)37 (35.9)90 (53.3)28 (40.0)
Age, years (non-neonatal) or days (neonatal), mean (SD)2.9 (5.0)9.6 (7.6)3.0 (4.7)7.0 (6.2)
Income, n (%)
 Lowest87 (25.4)33 (32.0)37 (21.9)17 (24.3)
 Low64 (18.7)21 (20.436 (21.3)7 (10.0)
 Middle72 (21.1)22 (21.4)35 (20.7)15 (21.4)
 High67 (19.6)15 (14.6)33 (19.5)19 (27.1)
 Highest49 (14.3)12 (11.7)25 (14.8)12 (17.1)
 Unknown****
Rurality, n (%)
 Urban305 (89.2)93 (90.3)148 (87.6)64 (91.4)
 Rural35 (10.2)10 (9.7)19 (11.2)6 (8.6)
Time to ECMO from admission, days, median (IQR)5 (1–13)5 (2–11)5 (1–14)6 (1–19)
Chronic complex conditions, n (%)a
 Any complex chronic condition274 (79.9)81 (78.6)140 (82.8)53 (74.6)
 Prematurity52 (15.2)18 (17.5)23 (13.6)11 (15.5)
 Cardiovascular217 (63.3)61 (59.2)132 (78.1)24 (33.8)
 Metabolic19 (5.5)0 (0.0)7 (4.1)12 (16.9)
 Other congenital or genetic abnormality58 (16.9)17 (16.5)31 (18.3)10 (14.1)
  1. aAdapted from Feudtner et al. [14]. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, IQR interquartile range
  2. Range provided due to small cell sizes
  3. *Denotes ≤ 5 patients