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Table 4 Hemodynamic analysis

From: Prophylactic use of levosimendan in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial

OutcomeLevosimendan group (n = 94)Placebo group (n = 93)p value
Before surgery
 HR (bpm)127.9 ± 12.5130.2 ± 11.20.185
 SBP (mmHg)81.1 ± 5.880.3 ± 7.30.403
 CI (L/min/m2)3.42 ± 0.583.42 ± 0.510.857
 SVRI (dyne s/m2 cm5)1134.4 ± 170.51079.5 ± 158.70.384
 dp/dt (mmHg/ms)0.86 ± 0.210.89 ± 0.230.265
 CCE (units)0.38 (0.30, 0.42)0.35 (0.24, 0.41)0.235
2 h after surgery
 HR (bpm)139.7 ± 13.0138.3 ± 13.70.464
 SBP (mmHg)79.4 ± 7.779.3 ± 7.90.898
 CI (L/min/m2)2.60 ± 0.692.64 ± 0.780.701
 SVRI (dyne s/m2 cm5)1899.2 ± 711.51836.5 ± 8560.626
 dp/dt (mmHg/ms)0.66 ± 0.290.65 ± 0.240.774
 CCE (units)− 0.52 (− 0.89, − 0.16)− 0.69 (− 1.02, − 0.30)0.066
24 h after surgery
 HR (bpm)139.2 ± 14.7135.3 ± 14.30.073
 SBP (mmHg)77.1 ± 6.476.0 ± 9.90.384
 CI(L/min/m2)2.63 ± 0.992.46 ± 0.590.199
 SVRI (dyne s/m2 cm5)1746.0 (1481.0, 2073.0)1765.0 (1430.0, 2068.0)0.466
 dp/dt (mmHg/ms)0.62 (0.47,0.81)0.49 (0.38, 0.70)0.013
 CCE (units)− 0.37 (− 0.75, − 0.09)− 0.54 (− 1.0, − 0.19)0.043
48 h after surgery
 HR (bpm)135.0 ± 12.2133.7 ± 15.30.509
 SBP (mmHg)79.7 ± 6.680.8 ± 8.00.294
 CI (L/min/m2)2.68 ± 0.522.63 ± 0.770.607
 SVRI (dyne s/m2 cm5)1676.0 (1435.0, 2113.0)1624.0 (1338.5, 1974.0)0.578
 dp/dt (mmHg/ms)0.74 ± 0.240.68 ± 0.270.234
 CCE (units)− 0.11 (− 0.36,0.10)− 0.34 (− 0.57,0.02)0.002
72 h after surgery
 HR (bpm)129.6 ± 14.2128.8 ± 13.60.707
 SBP (mmHg)82.0 ± 7.980.1 ± 8.80.120
 CI (L/min/m2)2.99 ± 0.472.77 ± 0.560.01
 SVRI (dyne s/m2 cm5)1625.8 ± 460.41612.2 ± 487.50.861
 dp/dt (mmHg/ms)0.81 (0.60, 0.99)0.76 ± 0.250.199
 CCE (units)0.08 (− 0.15, 0.21)− 0.10 (− 0.42, 0.13)0.001
  1. Data are means ± standard deviation (SD) or medians [Q1, Q3] for continuous variables and number of subjects (n) and percentage (%) for categorical variables
  2. HR heart rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, CI cardiac index, SVRI systemic vascular resistance index, dp/dtMAX maximum pressure gradient, CCE cardiac cycle efficiency, bpm beats per minute