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Table 1 Inflammatory molecules tested in animal studies

From: The effect of dexmedetomidine and clonidine on the inflammatory response in critical illness: a systematic review of animal and human studies

Animal studies
Inflammatory moleculeAlteration with α2 agonistLocationCitation
MyeloperoxidaseDecreasedLung tissue
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
Epigastric skin tissue flap
Chen et al. [17]
Jiang et al. [18]
Uysal et al. [19]
Nuclear factor Kappa BDecreasedLung tissue
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
Myocardial tissue
Chen et al. [17]
Kong et al. [20]
Hofer et al. [21]
Wu et al. [22]
Zhang et al. [23]
Shen et al. [24]
Nitric Oxide/inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNADecreasedLung tissue
Serum
Epigastric skin tissue flap
Chen et al. [17]
Yang et al. [25]
Yang et al. [26]
Sugita et al. [27]
Uysal et al. [19]
Tumour Necrosis Factor- αDecreasedLung tissue
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
Serum
Myocardial tissue
Jiang et al. [18]
Loftus et al. [28]
Yang et al. [26]
Chen et al. [3]
Kang et al. [29]
Kong et al. [20]
Tan et al. [30]
Taniguchi et al. [31]
Taniguchi et al. [32]
Xiang et al. [33]
Chen et al. [17]
Hofer et al. [21]
Qiao et al. [34]
Wu et al. [22]
Feng et al. [35]
Xu et al. [36]
Zhang et al. [23]
Shen et al. [24]
Sugita et al. [27]
Zhang et al. [4]
Interleukin-6DecreasedLung tissue
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
Serum
Myocardial tissue
Jiang et al. [18]
Yang et al. [25]
Chen et al. [17]
Kong et al. [20]
Tan et al. [30]
Feng et al. [35]
Taniguchi et al. [31]
Taniguchi et al.
Xiang et al. [32]
Chen et al. [3]
Hofer et al. [21]
Kang et al. [29]
Qiao et al. [34]
Zhang et al. [37]
Wu et al. [22]
Xu et al. [36]
Zhang et al. [23]
Shen et al. [24]
Sugita et al. [27]
Zhang et al. [4]
Toll-like Receptor 4DecreasedLung tissue
Intestinal tissue
Myocardial tissue
Jiang et al. [18]
Chen et al. [17]
Wu et al. [22]
Zhang et al. [23]
Shen et al. [24]
Zhang et al. [4]
Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response 88 (MyD88)DecreasedLung tissue
Myocardial tissue
Jiang et al. [18]
Wu et al. [22]
Zhang et al. [23]
Zhang et al. [4]
Interleukin-10DecreasedSerumSzelenyi et al. [38]
Vascular endothelial growth factorIncreasedLung tissueLoftus et al. [28]
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2IncreasedLung tissueLoftus et al. [28]
Interleukin-1bDecreasedLung tissue
Serum
Myocardial tissue
Yang et al. [25]
Yang et al. [26]
Kong et al. [20]
Zhang et al. [37]
Xiang et al. [33]
Feng et al. [35]
Chen et al. [17]
Hofer et al. [21]
Α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptorIncreasedMyocardial tissueKong et al. [20]
Organic hyperoxides and superoxide radicalsDecreasedLung tissue
Hepatic tissue
Ileal tissue
Chen et al. [17]
Filos et al. [39]
High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1)DecreasedLung tissue
Renal tissue
Myocardial tissue
Serum
Loftus et al. [28]
Tan et al. [30]
Xu et al. [36]
Zhang et al. [4]
Kidney Injury Molecule 1(KIM1)DecreasedRenal tissueTan et al. [30]
B-ActinDecreasedSerumYang et al. [25]
Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2)DecreasedSerumYang et al. [25]
Yang et al. [26]
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)DecreasedSerumYang et al. [26]
Macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP2)DecreasedSerumYang et al. [26]
LactateDecreasedSerumChen et al. [17]
Miranda et al. [40]
Chen et al. [3]
Malondialdehyde (MDA)DecreasedRenal tissue
Epigastric skin tissue flap
Chen et al. [3]
Koca et al. [41]
Uysal et al. [19]