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Table 1 Demographic and baseline clinical parameters

From: Cumulative fluid accumulation is associated with the development of acute kidney injury and non-recovery of renal function: a retrospective analysis

Variables*All patients without AKI on admission (n = 2525)New AKI in the ICU (n = 840)No new AKI in the ICU (n = 1685)p value
Demographics
 Age62 [48, 74]64 [51, 74]61 [43, 72]0.02
 Male sex1498 (59.3)519 (62.0)979 (58.0)0.06
 BMI24.2 [23, 28.1]25.4 [23.5, 30.0]24.2 [22.9, 29.0]<0.001
 Body weight [kg]70 [63, 81]73 [65, 89]70 [60, 78]< 0.001
Parameters on the day of ICU admission
 Medical admission2012 (80)677 (81)1335 (79)0.69
 Elective surgical admission367 (15)113 (14)254 (16)
 Emergency surgical admission146 (5)50 (6)96 (6)
 Lowest MAP [mmHg]59 [53, 64]56 [51, 61]59 [55, 62]0.01
 SOFA score5 [3, 7]5 [3, 8]4 [3, 7]<0.001
 CVP [mmHg]12 [8, 17]13 [9, 18]11 [7, 16]<0.001
Comorbidities
 Baseline serum creatinine [μmol/L)83 [63, 113]100 [75, 140]81 [60, 117]<0.001
 Chronic kidney disease228 (9.0)111 (13.3)117 (6.9)<0.001
 Chronic lung disease715 (28.3)246 (29.4)469 (27.8)0.40
 Chronic liver disease1645 (65.1)553 (66.1)1092 (67.1)0.51
 Cardiovascular disease545 (21.6)222 (26.5)343 (20.3)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure200 (8.0)80 (9.6)120 (7.1)0.04
 Diabetes mellitus517 (20.5)197 (23.5)320 (19.0)0.01
 Cerebrovascular disease206 (8.2)73 (8.7)133 (7.9)0.49
 Cancer730 (28.9)218 (26.0)512 (30.3)0.03
Primary diagnostic code for ICU admission
 Respiratory899 (35.6)298 (35.6)601 (35.6)1.00
 Neurologic179 (7.1)61 (7.3)118 (7.0)0.81
 Post-surgery429 (17.0)132 (15.8)297 (17.6)0.26
 Cardiovascular391 (15.4)145 (17.3)246 (14.6)0.08
 Gastrointestinal183 (7.2)59 (7.0)124 (7.3)0.81
 Urinary57 (2.3)14 (1.7)43 (2.5)0.20
 Sepsis210 (8.3)84 (10.0)126 (7.5)0.03
 Other339 (13.4)109 (13.0)230 (13.6)0.71
Organ support from ICU admission to the day of AKI or day 3
 Mechanical ventilation1444 (57.2)512 (61.2)932 (55.2)0.04
 ECMO130 (5.1)61 (7.3)69 (4.1)0.01
 IABP62 (2.5)31 (3.7)31 (1.8)0.01
 Surgery101 (4.0)35 (4.2)66 (3.9)0.75
 Epinephrine27 (1.1)13 (1.6)14 (0.8)0.10
 Norepinephrine1050 (41.6)427 (50.8)627 (37.1)<0.001
 Vasopressin9 (0.4)5 (0.6)4 (0.2)0.17
Time (in the first 7 days) spent on inotropic and vasoactive medications
 Number of days on at least 1 inotrope or vasopressor0 [0, 0]1 [0, 3]0 [0, 2]< 0.001
 0 days1405 (56)382 (45)1023 (61) 
 1–3 days725 (29)252 (30)473 (28) 
 4 or more days395 (16)206 (25)189 (11) 
 Number of days on > 1 inotrope or vasopressor0 [0, 0]0 [0, 0]0 [0, 0]< 0.001
 0 days2324 (92)737 (88)1587 (94) 
 1–3 days178 (7)87 (10)91 (5) 
 4 or more days23 (1)16 (2)7 (0) 
 Number of days on at least 1 vasopressor0 [0, 0]1 [0, 3]0 [0, 2]< 0.001
 0 days1428 (57)386 (46)1042 (62) 
 1–3 days718 (28)251 (30)467 (28) 
 4 or more days379 (15)203 (24)176 (11) 
 Number of days on > 1 vasopressor0 [0, 0]0 [0, 0]0 [0, 0]0.001
 0 days2502 (99)825 (98)1677 (99) 
 1–3 days23 (1)15 (2)8 (1) 
 4 or more days000 
Potentially nephrotoxic exposures
 Vancomycin240 (9.5)82 (9.8)158 (9.4)0.72
 Diuretic1185 (46.9)381 (45.5)804 (47.6)0.33
 Aminoglycosides899 (35.6)291 (34.8)608 (36.0)0.57
 ACE-I/ARB180 (7.1)67 (8.0)113 (6.7)0.25
 Contrast252 (10.0)88 (10.5)164 (9.7)0.53
 Chemotherapy42 (1.7)11 (1.3)31 (1.8)0.88
 Antiretroviral drugs40 (1.6)11 (1.3)30 (1.8)0.41
 NSAID51 (2.0)8 (1.0)43 (2.5)0.01
Fluid balance on the day of AKI/day 3
 Cumulative FB in ml1389 (3455)2148.4 (3667.5)1002 (3276)<0.001
 % of fluid balance in % BW1.66 [−0.7, 4.3]3.98 [1.2, 6.9]2.29 [−0.07, 5.14]<0.001
Outcomes
 ICU stay (days) 13 [9, 21]9 [5, 17]< 0.01
 Hospital stay (days) 31 [19, 56]22 [12, 43]0.94
 ICU mortality (%) 175 (20.9)94 (5.6)< 0.01
 Hospital mortality (%) 273 (35.4)243 (15.4)< 0.01
  1. ACE-I angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, AKI acute kidney injury, BMI body mass index, BW body weight, CVP central venous pressure, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, FB fluid balance, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, ICU intensive care unit, MAP mean arterial pressure, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, SD standard deviation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  2. *Results displayed as n (%), mean (SD) or median [interquartile range]