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Table 1 Comparative baseline demographics of the two cohorts

From: The early change of SOFA score as a prognostic marker of 28-day sepsis mortality: analysis through a derivation and a validation cohort

 Derivation cohort (n = 448)Validation cohort (n = 199)p value
Male gender, n (%)213 (47.5)147 (73.9)< 0.001
Age (years, mean ± SD)71.7 ± 16.658.4 ± 19.1< 0.001
SOFA score (mean ± SD)6.1 ± 4.17.8 ± 3.4< 0.001
APACHE II score (mean ± SD)15.1 ± 7.417.1 ± 5.70.001
CCI (mean ± SD)4.1 ± 2.52.6 ± 1.7< 0.001
PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mean ± SD)298.8 ± 112.6218.5 ± 98.0< 0.001
Mechanical ventilation, n (%)90 (20.1)199 (100)< 0.001
Characteristics of MV population
 Tidal volume (ml/kg, mean ± SD)6.6 ± 0.96.5 ± 0.90.179
 PEEP level (mmHg, mean ± SD)5.7 ± 0.96 ± 0.90.011
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mean ± SD)252.7 ± 113.7218.5 ± 98.00.020
 Duration of MV (days, mean ± SD)14.5 ± 13.814.7 ± 10.40.346
Underlying infection, n (%)
 Acute pyelonephritis207 (46.2)0 (0)NA
 Acute intra-abdominal infection162 (36.2)0 (0.0)NA
 Primary Gram-negative bacteremia71 (15.8)0 (0.0)NA
 Secondary Gram-negative bacteremia (other than urinary or intra-abdominal)8 (1.8)0 (0.0)0.107
 Ventilator-associated pneumonia0 (0)199 (100.0)NA
 Early (< 7 days of MV) 84 (42.2) 
 Late (> 7 days of MV) 115 (57.8) 
Septic shock, n (%)88 (19.6)85 (42.7)< 0.001
ARDS, n (%)136 (30.4)150 (75.4)< 0.001
ICU admission, n (%)90 (20.1)198 (99.5)< 0.001
ICU LOS (days, mean ± SD)45.3 ± 94.336.9 ± 34.40.317
Hospital LOS (days, mean ± SD)20.0 ± 47.651.7 ± 47.5< 0.001
 For ICU-admitted population49.6 ± 98.951.7 ± 47.50.006
 For non-ICU-admitted population12.6 1 ± 0.9NA 
ICU mortality, n (%)49 (54.4)89 (44.9)0.162
Hospital mortality, n (%)123 (27.5)110 (55.3)< 0.001
28-day mortality, n (%)102 (22.8)59 (29.6)0.075
90-day mortality, n (%)118 (26.3)153 (76.9)< 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: ARDS: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, SD standard deviation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, CCI Charlson’s comorbidity index, ICU: Intensive Care Unit, LOS: Length of Stay, MV: mechanical ventilation, NA not applicable