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Table 1 Baseline characteristics comparing mechanically ventilated participants with ARDS at mechanical ventilation onset, those of developed ARDS after mechanical ventilation onset, and those who never developed ARDS

From: Risk factors for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in mechanically ventilated adults in Peru: a multicenter observational study

CharacteristicOverallARDS at mechanical ventilation onsetARDS after mechanical ventilation onsetNo ARDSp value
Number of participants, n (%)1657 (100.0)334 (20.2)180 (10.9)1143 (69.0) 
Being male, n (%)907 (54.7)191 (57.2)92 (51.1)624 (54.6)0.41
Age in years, mean (SD)60.0 (18.9)58.3 (19.4)59.1 (20.6)60.7 (18.4)0.10
Body mass index in kg/m2, mean (SD)26.7 (5.3)27.0 (5.4)27.7 (5.6)26.5 (5.2)0.02
Height in centimeters, mean (SD)161.6 (8.8)161.3 (8.3)161.5 (9.5)161.8 (8.8)0.68
Difference between actual and predicted body weight in kg, mean (SD)13.7 (14.0)14.2 (14.3)16.1 (15.0)13.2 (13.8)0.04
Severity scores at the initiation of mechanical ventilation, mean (SD)
 APACHE III82.7 (28.1)85.9 (28.6)82.5 (28.9)81.8 (27.7)0.07
 SOFA9.5 (3.5)10.1 (3.3)9.3 (3.6)9.3 (3.5)< 0.01
 SAPS II54.4 (15.6)56.0 (16.5)55.4 (16.0)53.7 (15.3)0.04
Comorbidities, n (%)
 HIV29 (1.8)14 (4.2)0 (0.0)15 (1.3)< 0.01
 Tuberculosis95 (5.7)19 (5.7)10 (5.6)66 (5.8)0.99
 Leukemia15 (0.9)6 (1.8)2 (1.1)7 (0.6)0.12
 Malignant tumor122 (7.4)19 (5.9)11 (6.2)52 (4.9)0.75
 Dialysis122 (7.4)16 (4.8)11 (6.1)95 (8.3)0.07
 COPD32 (1.9)7 (2.2)4 (2.3)21 (1.8)0.93
 Cirrhosis63 (3.8)17 (5.2)8 (4.5)38 (3.3)0.15
 Chronic renal disease251 (15.2)43 (13.3)21 (11.8)187 (16.2)0.43
 Diabetes254 (15.4)39 (12.0)25 (15.4)190 (16.5)0.15
 Congestive heart failure153 (9.3)18 (5.6)17 (9.6)118 (10.3)0.01
Vasopressor use first 24 h, n (%)1002 (60.5)1002 (60.5)104 (57.8)688 (60.2)0.49
Fluid balance first 24 h, mL (SD)4474 (2607)4160 (2192)4170 (2345)4515 (2744)< 0.01
Admission service, n (%)
 Medicine1196 (72.3%)240 (73.8%)125 (70.2%)831 (72.1%)0.86
 Trauma177 (10.7%)25 (7.7%)19 (10.7%)133 (11.5%)0.23
 Scheduled surgery58 (3.5%)14 (4.3%)3 (1.7%)41 (3.6%)0.81
 Unscheduled surgery178 (10.8%)33 (10.1%)28 (15.7%)117 (10.2%)0.75
 Other46 (2.8%)13 (4%)3 (1.7%)30 (2.6%)0.58