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Table 5 Characteristics of non-IAH and IAH patients

From: Predictive value of transabdominal intestinal sonography in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study

  Total (n = 116) Non-IAH (n = 38) IAH (n = 78) t/Z/χ2 p value
Cumulative fluid balance within 1 week (L) 5.0 [3.4–6.7] 4.1 [2.1–5.5] 5.5 [3.8–7.2] 0.21b 0.01
 Fluid balance on day 1 (L) 1.6 [0.4–2.4] 1.4 [0.5–2.3] 1.7 [0.3–2.5] 0.73b 0.50
 Fluid balance on day 2 (L) 1.1 [0.4–2.2] 0.9 [0.1–1.7] 1.5 [0.5–2.2] 0.31b 0.05
 Fluid balance on day 3 (L) 1.0 [0.7–1.4] 0.8 [0.5–1.2] 1.1 [0.8–1.4] 0.07b 0.004
 Fluid balance on day 4 (L) 0.6 [− 0.6–1.3] 0.5 [− 0.8–1.2] 0.6 [− 0.5–1.3] 0.06b 0.43
 Fluid balance on day 5 (L) 0.8 [− 0.3–1.7] 0.7 [− 0.3–1.4] 0.7 [− 0.3–1.8] 2.04b 0.40
 Fluid balance on day 6 (L) 0.1 [− 0.1–0.5] − .05 [− 0.4–0.5] 0.2 [− 0.1–0.5] 5.26b 0.01
 Fluid balance on day 7 (L) 0.1 [− 0.4–0.4] 0.0 [− 0.4–0.4] 0.1 [− 0.4–0.4] 0.16b 0.14
Urine output (mL/kg day) 14.2 [7.9–24.4] 20.3 [13.5–27.8] 10.7 [6.3–22.9] 2.80b 0.001
Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 94.0 [61.5–131.8] 83.0 [40.8–103.5] 108.0 [71.5–165.0] 9.73b < 0.001
Fluid overload, n (%) 37 (31.9) 8 (21.1) 29 (37.2) 3.06c 0.08
Hematocrit (%) 35.4 ± 4.3 38.1 ± 3.1 34.1 ± 4.2 2.84a < 0.001
Gastric residual volume (mL/day) 521.4 ± 183.3 378.3 ± 208.2 532.4 ± 179.5 4.02a < 0.001
ACS, n (%) 5 (4.3) 0 (0) 5 (6.4) 2.52c 0.17
Vasopressor support, n (%) 59 (50.9) 18 (47.4) 41 (52.6) 0.14c 0.60
Norepinephrine dose (μg/kg/min) 0.06 [0.03–0.15] 0.04 [0.03–0.07] 0.13 [0.04–0.24] 3.24b 0.001
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 62 (53.4) 17 (44.7) 45 (57.7) 0.30c 0.19
Duration of mechanical ventilation (days) 3.0 [0–12.8] 1.0 [0–7.2] 5.5 [0–14.0] 6.13b 0.03
SOFA score 12.0 [10.0–14.0] 9.5 [6.0–12.0] 13.0 [11.0–15.0] 2.39b < 0.001
GIF score 2.0 [1.0–3.0] 1.0 [1.0–2.0] 2.0 [2.0–3.0] 6.21b < 0.001
AGIUS score 2.0 [1.0–3.0] 1.5 [1.0–3.0] 3.0 [1.0–4.0] 2.27b 0.002
GUTS score 3.0 [2.0–3.0] 2.0 [2.0–2.3] 3.0 [3.0–3.0] 6.69b < 0.001
Intestinal wall thickness (mm) 2.7 [2.4–2.9] 2.6 [2.6–3.0] 2.7 [2.5–2.9] 1.29b 0.49
Changes in the intestinal folds, n (%) 42 (36.2) 8 (21.1) 34 (43.6) 5.62c 0.02
Stratified intestinal walls, n (%) 58 (50) 15 (39.5) 43 (55.1) 2.51c 0.11
Intestinal peristalsis, frequency 6.0 [4.0–8.0] 7.0 [6.0–8.0] 6.0 [4.0–8.0] 1.87b 0.07
Intestinal diameter (cm) 2.6 [2.4–2.8] 2.6 [2.5–2.7] 2.6 [2.4–2.8] 0.34b 0.88
  1. Variables including serum creatinine, norepinephrine dose, and duration of mechanical ventilation were reported as the average values during stay in the ICU. Variables including vasopressor support and mechanical ventilation were reported as the number of patient during stay in the ICU. Variables including urine output, hematocrit, gastric residual volume, SOFA score, intestinal wall thickness, intestinal peristalsis, and intestinal diameter were reported as the average values of the first week after ICU admission. Variables including GIF score, AGIUS score, and GUTS score were reported as the highest values recorded during the first week after ICU admission. Variables including fluid overload, ACS, changes in the intestinal folds, and stratified intestinal walls were reported as the number of patients during the first week after ICU admission
  2. p value represents difference between non-IAH patients and IAH patients
  3. Continuous data are expressed as median [Q1; Q3] or mean ± standard
  4. aStudent’s t test
  5. bMann-Whitney U test
  6. cχ2 test or Fisher’s exact test