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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock according to the timing of antibiotic administration

From: Implementation of earlier antibiotic administration in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in Japan: a descriptive analysis of a prospective observational study

 Time to antibiotic use (min)p value
0–6061–120121–180181–240241–360361–1440
Number of patients, n11243433271619410396 
Age at admission in years, median (IQR) 73 (65–82)73 (63–81)75 (66–82)68 (58–78)74 (67–81)74 (63–83)0.035
Gender, n (% male)196 (57.1)190 (58.1)102 (63.4)65 (69.2)65 (63.1)57 (59.4)0.295
Admission source, n (%)ED210 (61.4)194 (59.3)94 (58.4)45 (47.9)56 (54.4)32 (33.3)< 0.01
ICU22 (6.4)8 (2.5)3 (1.9)3 (3.2)3 (2.9)4 (4.2)
Ward110 (32.2)125 (38.2)64 (39.8)46 (48.9)44 (42.7)60 (62.5)
Carlson comorbidity index, median (IQR) 1 (0–2)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)0.8543
Antibiotic use for infection before arrival, n (%)112 (32.8)100 (30.8)51 (31.9)41 (44.1)42 (41.6)55 (57.3)< 0.01
Suspected site of infection, n (%)Lung91 (26.5)102 (31.2)62 (38.5)31 (33.0)34 (33.0)31 (32.2)0.003
Abdomen102 (29.7)69 (21.1)34 (21.1)22 (23.4)30 (29.1)32 (33.3)
Urinary tract73 (21.3)76 (23.2)27 (16.8)13 (13.8)12 (11.7)11 (11.5)
Soft tissue and wound32 (9.3)44 (13.5)16 (9.9)15 (16.0)12 (11.7)5 (5.2)
Central nervous system8 (2.3)2 (0.6)3 (1.9)4 (4.3)4 (3.9)0 (0)
Blood stream-related12 (3.5)18 (5.5)10 (6.2)7 (7.5)6 (5.8)10 (10.4)
Others25 (7.3)16 (4.9)9 (5.6)2 (2.1)5 (4.9)7 (7.3)
Positivity of blood cultures, n (%) 192 (56.3)162 (49.7)86 (54.1)50 (53.2)60 (58.3)52 (54.2)0.561
Septic shock, n (%) 215 (62.7)207 (63.3)94 (58.4)61 (64.9)69 (67.0)57 (59.4)0.735
Mechanical ventilation, n (%)142 (42.3)129 (40.6)58 (37.2)36 (39.1)43 (42.2)38 (40.9)0.932
Organ dysfunction on arrivalHypotension, n (%)193 (56.3)178 (54.4)74 (46.0)59 (62.8)65 (63.1)46 (47.9)0.029
Hyperlactatemia (> 2 mmol/L), n (%)240 (70.0)214 (65.4)119 (73.9)61 (64.9)69 (67.0)45 (46.9)< 0.01
Acute kidney injury (creatinine > 2 mg/dL), n (%)134 (39.1)118 (36.1)64 (39.8)34 (36.2)37 (35.9)37 (38.5)0.946
Acute lung injury, n (%)115 (33.5)120 (36.7)72 (44.7)37 (39.4)36 (35.0)37 (38.5)0.269
Hyperbilirubinemia (> 2.0 mg/dL), n (%)58 (16.9)48 (14.7)31 (19.3)17 (18.1)17 (16.5)21 (21.9)0.62
Thrombocytopenia (< 100,000/μL), n (%)104 (30.3)91 (27.8)43 (26.7)29 (30.9)31 (30.1)28 (29.2)0.951
Coagulopathy (INR > 1.5), n (%)70 (20.4)61 (18.7)25 (15.5)18 (19.2)15 (14.6)18 (18.8)0.72
Number of organ dysfunction, median (IQR) 2 (2–4)2 (1–3)2 (2–3)3 (2–4)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)0.1893
APACHE II score, median (IQR)22 (17–30)22 (16–28)23 (18–31)21 (16–29)25 (19–32)24 (18–29)0.1613
SOFA score, median (IQR)9 (6–11)8 (6–11)9 (5–11)8 (6–11)9 (6–12)8 (5–11)0.7155
Blood cultures before antibiotics completed within 3 h, n (%)318 (93.0)310 (95.4)148 (91.9)83 (88.3)94 (91.3)78 (81.3)< 0.01
Intravenous fluid bolus completed within 3 h (30 mg/kg crystalloid), n (%)No37 (10.9)50 (15.3)32 (20.1)21 (22.6)22 (21.4)27 (28.1)0.001
Yes212 (62.4)185 (56.6)75 (47.2)43 (46.2)53 (51.5)40 (41.7)
Not indicated91 (26.8)92 (28.1)52 (32.7)29 (31.2)28 (27.2)29 (30.2)
Serum lactate obtained, n (%) 331 (96.8)321 (98.2)153 (95.0)92 (97.9)99 (96.1)92 (95.8)0.483
Entire 3-h bundle if indicated (n = 796), n/total (%)194/249 (77.9)170/234 (72.7)67/107 (62.6)25/64 (39.1)33/75 (44.0)21/67 (31.3)< 0.01
  1. Missing data: admission source = 1, antibiotic use before arrival = 8, blood cultures = 5, mechanical ventilation = 27, APACHE II score = 122, SOFA score = 171, blood cultures before antibiotics completed within 3 h = 3, intravenous fluid bolus completed within 3 h (30 mg/kg crystalloid) = 6, serum lactate obtained = 1
  2. ED emergency department, ICU intensive care unit, PT-INR prothrombin time to international normalized ratio, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SOFA sepsis-related organ failure assessment