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Table 1 Participant characteristics by group

From: Effects of a swallowing and oral care intervention for patients following endotracheal extubation: a pre- and post-intervention study

CharacteristicSOC (n = 54)Control (n = 117)P value
Demographic
 Age, years, mean (SD)71.4 (10.8)68.2 (10.8)0.39a
 Female gender, n (%)21 (38.9)42 (35.9)0.74b
 Education, years, mean (SD)9.4 (5.3)9.9 (4.8)0.94a
 Current smoker, n (%)9 (17.0)30 (25.9)0.24b
 Body weight, mean (SD)59.5 (11.5)64.1 (15.1)0.44a
 Body mass index, mean (SD)22.9 (4.0)23.8 (5.3)0.49a
Clinical
 Admission diagnosis, n (%)  0.83b
  Respiratory failure23 (42.6)53 (45.3) 
  Septic shock/sepsis14 (25.9)28 (23.9) 
  Heart disease12 (22.2)18 (15.4) 
  Gastrointestinal bleeding3 (5.6)8 (6.8) 
  Other2 (3.7)10 (8.5) 
 APACHE II score, n (%)  0.13b
  0–2426 (48.1)72 (61.5) 
  ≥ 2528 (51.9)45 (38.5) 
 Intake level, n (%)  < 0.01b
  FOIS level 134 (63.0)48 (41.0) 
  FOIS levels 2–317 (31.5)33 (28.2) 
  FOIS levels 4–73 (5.6)36 (30.8) 
Oxygen supplementation, n (%)38 (70.4)62 (53.9)0.05b
Salivary flow, cm/5 min, median (IQR)3.0 (3.0)3.9 (2.0)0.03a
  1. FOIS functional oral intake scale, SOC swallowing and oral care, APACHE Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation. FOIS Level 1, nothing by mouth; level 2, tube dependent with minimal attempts of food or liquid; level 3, tube dependent with consistent oral intake of food or liquid; level 4, total oral diet of a single consistency; level 5, total oral diet with multiple consistencies, but requiring special preparation or compensations; level 6, total oral diet with multiple consistencies with special preparation, but with specific food limitations; level 7, total oral diet with no restrictions
  2. aMann-Whitney U test
  3. bFisher’s exact test