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Table 1 Patient characteristics at admission

From: Effect of tranexamic acid on mortality in patients with haemoptysis: a nationwide study

VariablesUnmatchedMatched
Control (n = 11,490)Tranexamic acid (n = 17,049)Standardised difference (%)Control (n = 9933)Tranexamic acid (n = 9933)Standardised difference (%)
Age, years72 ± 1471 ± 141072 ± 1472 ± 133
Male7395 (64.4%)9866 (57.9%)136237 (62.8%)6285 (63.3%)1
Smoking history
 Non-smoker5360 (46.6%)8167 (47.9%)34671 (47.0%)4653 (46.8%)0
 Current/past smoker4758 (41.4%)7054 (41.4%)04115 (41.4%)4094 (41.2%)0
 Missing data1372 (11.9%)1828 (10.7%)41147 (11.5%)1186 (11.9%)1
Body mass index, kg/m2
 < 18.503065 (26.7%)4720 (27.7%)22682 (27.0%)2716 (27.3%)1
 18.50–24.995843 (50.9%)8627 (50.6%)15072 (51.1%)5022 (50.6%)1
 25.00–29.991176 (10.2%)1495 (8.8%)5962 (9.7%)986 (9.9%)1
 ≥ 30.00221 (1.9%)264 (1.5%)3176 (1.8%)188 (1.9%)1
 Missing data1185 (10.3%)1943 (11.4%)41041 (10.5%)1021 (10.3%)1
Japan Coma Scale on admission
 Alert10,265 (89.3%)15,582 (91.4%)78948 (90.1%)8892 (89.5%)2
 Dizziness883 (7.7%)1069 (6.3%)6705 (7.1%)752 (7.6%)2
 Somnolence155 (1.3%)186 (1.1%)2126 (1.3%)138 (1.4%)1
 Coma187 (1.6%)212 (1.2%)3154 (1.6%)151 (1.5%)0
Charlson comorbidity index
 04597 (40.0%)7510 (44.0%)84107 (41.3%)3950 (39.8%)3
 13528 (30.7%)5414 (31.8%)23070 (30.9%)3062 (30.8%)0
 21784 (15.5%)2244 (13.2%)71463 (14.7%)1560 (15.7%)3
 3690 (6.0%)843 (4.9%)5552 (5.6%)594 (6.0%)2
 ≥ 4891 (7.8%)1038 (6.1%)7741 (7.5%)767 (7.7%)1
Comorbidity of atrial fibrillation687 (6.0%)665 (3.9%)10509 (5.1%)530 (5.3%)1
Comorbidity of venous thromboembolism96 (0.8%)102 (0.6%)374 (0.7%)88 (0.9%)2
Comorbidity of chronic kidney disease400 (3.5%)333 (2.0%)9263 (2.6%)284 (2.9%)1
Ambulance transportation3941 (34.3%)6831 (40.1%)123536 (35.6%)3508 (35.3%)1
Teaching hospital8977 (78.1%)14,822 (86.9%)238239 (82.9%)8073 (81.3%)4
Intensive care unit admission509 (4.4%)789 (4.6%)1448 (4.5%)461 (4.6%)1
Aetiologies of haemoptysis
 Cryptogenic3912 (34.0%)5956 (34.9%)23450 (34.7%)3363 (33.9%)2
 Tuberculosis543 (4.7%)975 (5.7%)5490 (4.9%)487 (4.9%)0
 Bronchopulmonary carcinoma2181 (19.0%)2511 (14.7%)111771 (17.8%)1851 (18.6%)2
 Cystic fibrosis/bronchial dilatation1578 (13.7%)3939 (23.1%)241540 (15.5%)1415 (14.2%)4
 Respiratory infection4495 (39.1%)5614 (32.9%)133715 (37.4%)3892 (39.2%)4
 Aspergillosis479 (4.2%)919 (5.4%)6453 (4.6%)418 (4.2%)2
 Others274 (2.4%)283 (1.7%)5212 (2.1%)235 (2.4%)2
Examinations on the day of admission
 Acid-fast bacilli culture4534 (39.5%)9013 (52.9%)274359 (43.9%)4071 (41.0%)6
 Bronchoscopy372 (3.2%)1182 (6.9%)17368 (3.7%)317 (3.2%)3
 Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy368 (3.2%)729 (4.3%)6353 (3.6%)333 (3.4%)1
Computed tomography7008 (61.0%)13,152 (77.1%)366775 (68.2%)6484 (65.3%)6
Treatments on the day of admission
 Therapeutic embolisation327 (2.8%)893 (5.2%)12319 (3.2%)294 (3.0%)2
 Dopamine use101 (0.9%)183 (1.1%)295 (1.0%)96 (1.0%)0
 Adrenaline use123 (1.1%)370 (2.2%)9123 (1.2%)100 (1.0%)2
 Noradrenaline use94 (0.8%)112 (0.7%)271 (0.7%)79 (0.8%)1
 Transfusion425 (3.7%)637 (3.7%)0370 (3.7%)380 (3.8%)1
 Oxygenation3634 (31.6%)6684 (39.2%)163405 (34.3%)3311 (33.3%)2
 Mechanical ventilation414 (3.6%)651 (3.8%)1367 (3.7%)376 (3.8%)1
 Renal replacement therapy83 (0.7%)55 (0.3%)644 (0.4%)51 (0.5%)1
  1. Categorical variables are expressed as the number (%), and continuous variables are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. The total number of aetiologies does not add up to 100%, as more than one cause could be assigned to a single patient