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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, interventions, and mortality

From: Mortality risk over time after early fluid resuscitation in African children

 Randomised groupTotal (n = 3141)
Albumin bolus (n = 1050)Saline bolus (n = 1047)Control (no bolus) (n = 1044)
Baseline characteristics
 Age (median (IQR) months)23 (14, 37)23 (13, 37)25 (14, 40)24 (13, 38)
 Female sex474 (45%)480 (46%)498 (48%)1452 (46%)
 Malariaa590 (57%)612 (59%)593 (57%)1795 (57%)
 Impaired consciousnessb811 (77%)828 (79%)759 (73%)2398 (76%)
 Respiratory distress874 (83%)854 (82%)857 (83%)2585 (83%)
 Impaired perfusion
  Capillary refill > 2 s263 (25%)299 (29%)257 (25%)819 (26%)
  Lower limb temperature gradientc620 (59%)629 (61%)610 (58%)1859 (59%)
  Weak radial pulse210 (20%)239 (23%)206 (19%)655 (21%)
  Severe tachycardiad736 (70%)721 (69%)738 (71%)2195 (70%)
Interventions
 One or more boluses received1045 (99%)1041 (99%)1 (< 1%)2087 (67%)
 Two or more boluses received318 (30%)306 (29%)6 (< 1%)630 (20%)
Mortality
 Deaths by 48 h111 (11%)110 (11%)76 (7%)297 (9%)
 Deaths by 28 days128 (12%)126 (12%)91 (9%)345 (11%)
  Cardiogenic deaths56 (5%)51 (5%)29 (3%)137 (4%)
  Neurological deaths33 (3%)33 (3%)36 (3%)102 (3%)
  Respiratory deaths27 (3%)29 (3%)16 (2%)72 (2%)
  Unknown/other TCE12 (1%)12 (1%)10 (1%)34 (1%)
 Median time to death (hours) (IQR)e10.4 (2.8, 26.5)8.1 (2.9, 21.8)7.8 (1.8, 27.0)8.5 (2.5, 23.8)
  1. aPositive for malaria parasitaemia on either a rapid diagnostic test or a microscopy slide
  2. bImpaired consciousness was defined as prostration or coma. Prostration: the inability of a child older than 8 months of age to sit upright or the inability of a child 8 months of age or younger to breast-feed. Coma: the inability to localise a painful stimulus)
  3. cLower limb temperature gradient, defined as a notable temperature change from cold (dorsum of foot) to warm (knee) when running the back of hand from the toe to the knee
  4. dWeak pulse: weak radial pulse or severe tachycardia, defined as heart rate > 180 beats per minute (bpm) for children < 1 year old, > 160 bpm for those 1 to 4 years old, and > 140 bpm for those ≥ 5 years old)
  5. eMedian test p = 0.53 comparing the two bolus groups