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Table 3 Patient subgroups stratified by NEWS and MR-proADM

From: Biomarkers and clinical scores to identify patient populations at risk of delayed antibiotic administration or intensive care admission

Patient subgroups Patient populations stratified by NEWS and MR-proADM
MR-proADM (nmol/L) NEWS (points) MR-proADM (nmol/L) NEWS (points) MR-proADM (nmol/L) NEWS (points) MR-proADM (nmol/L) NEWS (points)
< 1.77 < 5 ≥ 1.77 < 5 < 1.77 ≥ 5 ≥ 1.77 ≥ 5
Population, N (%) 425 (62.1%) 74 (10.8%) 100 (14.6%) 85 (12.8%)
Antibiotic administration, N (%) 266 (62.6%) 63 (85.1%) 94 (94.0%) 82 (96.5%)
Time to antibiotic administration (min) (median [Q1–Q4]) 180 [90 – 342] 205.5 [111 – 300] 210 [142 – 315] 180 [100 – 300]
Antibiotic administration < 180 min, N (%) 108 (40.6%) 26 (41.3%) 30 (31.9%) 33 (40.2%)
i.v. to oral antibiotic change (days) (median [Q1–Q4]) 1.5 [1 – 4] 4.0 [0 – 6.75] 4 [2 – 6] 3.5 [0 – 4.5]
Hospitalisation, N (%) 260 (61.2%) 63 (85.1%) 93 (93.0%) 82 (96.5%)
Length of hospitalisation (days) (median [Q1–Q4]) 1 [0 – 5] 6 [3 – 11] 7 [4 – 10] 7 [4 – 13]
Infection-related readmission, N (%) 25 (5.9%) 14 (18.9%) 3 (3.0%) 9 (10.6%)
ICU admission, N (%) 7 (1.6%) 6 (8.1%) 2 (2.0%) 8 (9.4%)
Time to ICU admission (days) (median [Q1–Q4]) 13 [2 – 20] 1.5 [1 – 5] 9.5 [4.75 – 14.25] 0 [0 – 0]
Number of immediate ICU admissions, N (%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 7 (30.4%)
Number of delayed ICU admissions, N (%) 2 (8.7%) 5 (21.7%) 1 (4.3%) 0 (0.0%)
Number of late ICU admissions, N (%) 5 (21.7%) 1 (4.3%) 1 (4.3%) 1 (4.3%)
Infection-related 28-day mortality, N (%) 0 (0.0%) 10 (13.5%) 6 (6.0%) 14 (16.5%)
Hospital mortality, N (%) 1 (0.2%) 10 (13.5%) 9 (9.0%) 15 (17.6%)
Disease progression, N (%) 21 (4.9%) 22 (29.7%) 12 (12.0%) 24 (28.2%)
  1. Number of immediate, delayed, or late ICU admissions are expressed as a percentage of the total number of ICU admissions. ICU intensive care unit, i.v. intravenous, MR-proADM mid-regional proadrenomedullin, N number, NEWS National Early Warning Score