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Table 1 Patient characteristics in the total population and with regard to infection-related 28-day mortality

From: Biomarkers and clinical scores to identify patient populations at risk of delayed antibiotic administration or intensive care admission

Patient characteristics Total cohort (N = 684) Survivors (N = 654) Non-survivors (N = 30) p value
Demographics
 Age (years) 65.1 (19.6) 64.4 (19.8) 78.9 (9.0) < 0.001
 Male sex (N, %) 366 (53.5%) 352 (53.8%) 14 (46.7%) 0.442
Disposition
 Hospital admission (N, %) 498 (72.8%) 469 (71.7%) 29 (96.7%) 0.003
 Hospital length of stay (days) 3 [0 – 7.25] 3 [0 – 7] 12 [3 – 20.5] < 0.001
 ICU admission (N, %) 23 (3.4%) 19 (2.9%) 4 (13.3%) 0.002
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular disease (N, %) 255 (37.3%) 239 (36.5%) 16 (53.3%) 0.063
 Diabetes (N, %) 152 (22.2%) 140 (21.4%) 12 (40.0%) 0.017
 Immunodeficiency (N, %) 105 (15.4%) 97 (14.8%) 8 (26.7%) 0.079
 Liver disease (N, %) 54 (7.9%) 48 (7.3%) 6 (20.0%) 0.012
 Malignancy (N, %) 183 (26.8%) 169 (25.8%) 14 (46.7%) 0.012
 Neurological disorders (N, %) 132 (19.3%) 125 (19.1%) 7 (23.3%) 0.567
 Respiratory disease (N, %) 180 (26.3%) 173 (26.5%) 7 (23.3%) 0.704
 Renal disease (N, %) 128 (18.7%) 117 (17.9%) 11 (36.7%) 0.010
Infectious source
 Bone and joint (N, %) 4 (0.6%) 3 (0.5%) 1 (3.3%) 0.044
 Cardiac (N, %) 2 (0.3%) 1 (0.2%) 1 (3.3%) 0.002
 Intra-abdominal (N, %) 93 (13.6%) 86 (13.1%) 7 (23.3%) 0.112
 Respiratory — lower (N, %) 220 (32.2%) 206 (31.5%) 14 (46.7%) 0.082
 Respiratory — upper (N, %) 18 (2.6%) 18 (2.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0.357
 Skin and soft tissue (N, %) 36 (5.3%) 35 (5.4%) 1 (3.3%) 0.628
 Surgical related (N, %) 16 (2.3%) 16 (2.4%) 0 (0.0%) 0.386
 Unknown origin (N, %) 81 (11.8%) 80 (12.2%) 1 (3.3%) 0.140
 Urogenital (N, %) 214 (31.3%) 209 (32.0%) 5 (16.7%) 0.077
Blood cultures
 Blood cultures taken (N, %) 407 (59.5%) 390 (59.6%) 17 (56.7%) 0.746
 Positive blood cultures (N, %) 58 (14.3%) 55 (8.4%) 3 (10.0%) 0.756
 Gram-positive bacteria (N, %) 15 (2.2%) 14 (2.1%) 1 (3.3%) 0.326
 Gram-negative bacteria (N, %) 35 (5.1%) 33 (5.0%) 2 (6.7%) 0.762
 Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (N, %) 8 (1.2%) 7 (1.1%) 1 (3.3%) 0.737
Biomarkers and severity scores
 MR-proADM (nmol/L) 1.09 [0.70 – 1.71] 1.05 [0.68 – 1.64] 2.32 [1.89 – 2.96] < 0.001
 PCT (ng/mL) 0.21 [0.10 – 0.98] 0.2 [0.10 – 0.90] 0.59 [0.21 – 3.78] < 0.001
 Lactate (mmol/L) 1.5 [1.1 – 2.1] 1.5 [1.1 – 2.1] 2.1 [1.58 – 2.83] < 0.01
 CRP (mg/L) 10.52 [3.17 – 26.3] 10.52 [3.12 – 25.63] 9.99 [6.36 – 18.35] 0.925
 SOFA (points) 1 [0 – 3] 1 [0 – 3] 4 [3 – 5] < 0.001
 qSOFA (points) 0 [0 – 1] 0 [0 – 1] 1 [1 – 1] < 0.05
 SIRS (points) 1 [1 – 2] 1 [1 – 2] 2 [1 – 2] < 0.001
 NEWS (points) 2 [1 – 5] 2 [1 – 5] 6 [3.25 – 7.75] < 0.001
 CRB-65 (points) 1 [0 – 2] 1 [0 – 1] 2 [1 – 2] < 0.001
  1. Values expressed in percentages (%) indicate the proportion of patients within each cohort for each variable. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation, SD) or median [first quartile (Q1)–third quartile (Q3)] where specified. The chi-square (χ2) test was used to determine significance between the cohorts for categorical variables, Student’s t test for the variable of age, and Mann-Whitney U test for hospitalisation duration, biomarker, and clinical score variables. CRB-65 severity score for community-acquired pneumonia, CRP C-reactive protein, ICU intensive care unit, MR-proADM mid-regional proadrenomedullin, N number, NEWS National Early Warning Score, PCT procalcitonin, qSOFA quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment