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Table 2 Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes

From: Machine learning versus physicians’ prediction of acute kidney injury in critically ill adults: a prospective evaluation of the AKIpredictor

  Admission cohort Day1 cohort Day1+ cohort
N 252 238 195
AKI-23 by SCr and UO, n (%) 30 (12) 17 (7) 17 (9)
Time to AKI-23 by SCr and UO, hours from admission 27.1 (9.6–61.6) 39.7 (31.6–109.4) 39.7 (31.6–109.4)
AKI-23 by SCr, n (%) 23 (9) 13 (5) 13 (7)
Time to AKI-23 by SCr, hours from admission 28.3 (12.1–38.4) 37.1 (32.9–61.5) 37.1 (32.9–61.5)
ICU LOS, days 3 (2–7) 2 (2–6) 3 (2–7)
Demographics
 Age, year 65.5 (52.8–74.0) 65 (52–74) 66 (54–74)
 Male gender, n (%) 155 (61.5) 146 (61.3) 121 (62.1)
 Height, cm 171 (165–178) 171 (165–178) 171 (165–178)
 Weight, kg 75.2 (65.0–86.3) 75.0 (65.0–86.0) 75.0 (63.5–85.7)
 Diabetic, n (%) 6 (2.4) 5 (2.1) 3 (1.5)
 Baseline SCr, mg/dL 0.88 (0.73–1.05) 0.88 (0.73–1.04) 0.88 (0.73–1.06)
Clinical parameters
 Elective admission, n (%) 154 (61.1) 149 (62.6) 124 (63.6)
 Surgical category, n (%)
  Cardiac 103 (40.9) 98 (41.1) 85 (43.6)
  Transplant 7 (2.8) 7 (2.9) 7 (3.6)
  Others 92 (36.5) 86 (35.8) 71 (36.4)
 Medical category, n (%) 50 (19.8) 47 (19.8) 32 (16.4)
 Hemodynamic support at ICU admission, n (%)
  Pharmacological 165 (65.5) 158 (66.4) 140 (71.8)
  Mechanical 4 (1.6) 3 (1.3) 3 (1.5)
 Blood glucose at ICU admission, mg/dL 135 (113–155) 135 (114–155) 137 (116–160)
 Sepsis upon ICU admission, n (%) 20 (7.9) 18 (7.6) 16 (8.2)
 Maximum lactate on day 1, mg/dL 1.6 (1.1–2.4) 1.5 (1.1–2.3) 1.6 (1.1–2.4)
 Bilirubin on day 1, mg/dL 0.54 (0.37–0.84) 0.54 (0.37–0.83) 0.53 (0.38–0.83)
 Apache II score on day 1 14 (10–17) 13.5 (10–17) 14 (11–17)
 SOFA score on day 1 9 (5–11) 9 (5–11) 9 (6–12)
 SCr on day 1, md/dL, 0.87 (0.68–1.08) 0.87 (0.68–1.05) 0.88 (0.70–1.08)
Monitoring parametersa
 UO slope, mL/hour −0.00014 (−0.00052 to 0.00034) −0.00013 (−0.00051 to 0.00035) −0.00014 (−0.00046 to 0.00032)
 Total amount of UO, mL/hour 1025 (770–1437) 1047 (789–1451) 1048 (495–1473)
 Blood pressure below 60 mmHg, min 10 (3–50) 10 (3–48) 11 (4–51)
 Blood pressure above average, min 644 (569–696) 647 (569–698) 655 (593–716)
 Dose of vasopressors, mg 2.7 (0–8.9) 2.7 (0–8.6) 4.3 (0–9.7)
  1. Data are reported as median (IQR) unless otherwise indicated
  2. Abbreviations: AKI acute kidney injury, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile ranges, LOS length of stay, SCr serum creatinine, UO urine output
  3. aMeasured during the first 24 h of ICU stay