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Table 2 Changes in haemodynamic (A) and metabolic (B) parameters over the study period

From: Capillary refill time variation induced by passive leg raising predicts capillary refill time response to volume expansion

A
  Baseline (T1) During PLR (T2) Baseline (T3) After VE (T4) Group R/NR Study period R/NRstudy period
CRT, s CRT-R (n = 15) 3.6 [2.8, 6.0] 2.3 [1.6, 3.6] NA 2.1 [1.8, 2.9]* < 0.001 0.972 < 0.001
CRT-NR (n = 19) 2.6 [2.3, 3.3] 2.6 [2.0, 3.1] NA 2.6 [2.0, 3.1]    
CI, L min−1 m−2 CRT-R (n = 15) 2.5 [2.0, 3.1] 2.8 [2.5, 3.3] 2.5 [2.1, 3.2] 3.0 [2.7, 3.2] 0.987 < 0.001 0.829
CRT-NR (n = 19) 2.5 [2.2, 3.1] 2.8 [2.5, 3.5] 2.4 [2.1, 3.3] 3.1 [2.6, 3.4]    
SVi, mL m−2 CRT-R (n = 15) 31 [24, 35] 34 [27, 37] 30 [24, 36] 33 [30, 40] 0.787 0.001 0.997
CRT-NR (n = 19) 27 [22, 35] 31 [30, 37] 27 [21, 36] 32 [27, 36]    
HR, min−1 CRT-R (n = 15) 96 [73.0, 104] 97 [72, 105] 96 [73, 106] 93 [70, 105]* 0.700 0.674 0.537
CRT-NR (n = 19) 93 [78, 112] 94 [78, 110] 95 [79, 110] 91 [80, 108]    
SAP, mmHg CRT-R (n = 15) 97 [90, 116] 116 [102, 136] 107 [94, 132.] 118 [105, 136] 0.624 0.477 0.554
CRT-NR (n = 19) 104 [94, 116] 112 [99, 116] 98 [94, 110] 112 [104, 119]    
DAP, mmHg CRT-R (n = 15) 52 [46, 57] 53 [46, 64] 49 [43, 54] 57 [45, 66] 0.958 0.524 0.249
CRT-NR (n = 19) 51 [41, 56] 51 [47, 56] 51 [46, 54] 51 [46, 57]    
MAP, mmHg CRT-R (n = 15) 70 [62, 75.] 71 [65, 82] 68 [60, 73] 76 [69, 81] 0.714 0.101 0.932
CRT-NR (n = 19) 67 [61, 70] 67 [63, 76.] 64 [58, 70] 68. [63, 75]    
PP, mmHg CRT-R (n = 15) 49 [36, 65.] 55 [46, 83] 58 [44, 83] 60 [46, 75] 0.321 0.051 0.548
CRT-NR (n = 19) 53 [41, 64] 56 [49, 63] 51 [44, 58] 58 [50, 72]    
SpO2, % CRT-R (n = 15) 98 [97, 100] 99 [97, 100] 99 [97, 100] 100 [97, 100] 0.353 0.143 0.575
CRT-NR (n = 19) 99 [95,100] 98 [95, 100] 97 [93, 100] 99 [96, 100]    
EtCO2, mmHg CRT-R (n = 15) 34 [32, 44] 36 [32, 45] 34 [30, 43] 34 [29.7, 45.5] 0.708 0.175 0.548
CRT-NR (n = 19) 37 [31, 46] 36 [32, 44] 35 [30, 43] 36 [31, 43]    
CVP, mmHg CRT-R (n = 15) 8 [7, 11] 11 [9, 14] 8 [6, 11] 10 [7, 13] 0.678 0.906 0.543
CRT-NR (n = 19) 6 [3, 9] 7 [5, 12] 5 [2, 8] 6 [4, 9]    
B
  Baseline (T1) After VE (T4) p value
Oxygen delivery, mL min−1 m−2 CRT-R (n = 14) 313 [254–361] 370 [317–399] 0.002
CRT-NR (n = 14) 355 [309–440] 397 [327–458] 0.003
p value 0.24 0.697  
Oxygen uptake, mL min−1 m−2 CRT-R (n = 14) 103 [88–109] 100 [90–109] 0.357
CRT-NR (n = 14) 97 [64–119] 104 [80–133] 0.375
p value 0.401 0.697  
Oxygen extraction ratio CRT-R (n = 14) 0.34 [0.26–0.40] 0.28 [0.22–0.33] 0.024
CRT-NR (n = 14) 0.28 [0.23–0.30] 0.24 [0.19–0.33] 0.583
p value 0.051 0.608  
  1. Values are median [IQR]. A mixed-effect linear model was used to compute p value. Dunnett’s test was performed for multiple comparisons to the baseline
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. CRT capillary refill time, CI cardiac index, CVP central venous pressure, DAP diastolic arterial pressure, EtCO2 end-tidal carbon dioxide, HR heart rate, IQR 25th–75th interquartile range, MAP mean arterial pressure, CRT-R responders to volume expansion defined as patients showing a decrease in CRT of at least 25% after volume expansion, CRT-NR non-responders to volume expansion define as patients showing a decrease in CRT after VE of less than 25%, PLR passive leg raising, PP pulse pressure, SAP systolic arterial pressure, DAP diastolic arterial pressure, SpO2 dioxygen pulse saturation, SVi stroke volume index, VE volume expansion