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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Vitamin A deficiency in critically ill children with sepsis

  Sepsis group Control group P values
N = 160 N = 49
Age, months 12.00 (3.00, 49.75) 11.00 (4.00, 62.00) 0.782a
Age, n (%) 0.460b
 < 1 year 77 (48.1%) 26 (53.1%)  
 1 year≤, < 5 years 47 (29.4%) 10 (20.4%)  
 5 years≤ 36 (22.5%) 13 (26.5%)  
Gender 0.294b
 Male, n (%) 91 (56.9%) 32 (65.3%)  
Race, n (%) 0.299c
 Tibetan 15 (9.4%) 3 (6.1%)  
 Han 132 (82.5%) 45 (91.8%)  
 Other 13 (8.1%) 1 (2.0%)  
Weight, kg 7.75 (4.00, 14.86) 9.00 (5.75, 16.75) 0.216a
Setting, n (%) 0.652b
 Rural 79 (49.4%) 26 (53.1%)  
 City 81 (50.6%) 23 (46.9%)  
Mean VA status, mg/L
 Total 0.192 (0.106) 0.339 (0.119) 0.000d#
 < 1 year 0.192 (0.1043) 0.305 (0.131) 0.000d
 1 year≤, < 5 years 0.189 (0.095) 0.401 (0.093) 0.000d
 5 years≤ 0.198 (0.125) 0.361 (0.091) 0.000d
VAD, n (%) 94 (58.8%) 6 (12.2%) 0.000b
 < 1 year 45 (47.9%) 6 (100.0%)  
 1 year≤, < 5 years 27 (28.7%) 0  
 5 years≤ 22 (23.4%) 0  
Source of infection, n (%)
 Respiratory system 40 (25.0%)   
 Gastrointestinal system 73 (45.6%)   
 Central nervous system 1 (0.6%)   
 Blood stream 8 (5.0%)   
 Soft tissue 10 (6.3%)   
 Other 20 (12.5%)   
 Respiratory and gastrointestinal system 5 (3.1%)   
 Respiratory and central nervous system 2 (1.3%)   
Severe sepsis, n (%) 29 (18.1%)   
Septic shock, n (%) 25 (15.6%)   
Length of stay, days
 PICU 6.70 (3.50, 12.87)   
 Hospital 14.65 (8.93, 22.80)   
PRISM 11.00 (7.00, 17.00)   
Mortality, n (%)
 Hospital 7 (4.4%)   
 28-day 11 (6.9%)   
Time of ventilation, hours 24.00 (7.25, 117.50)   
Positive blood culture, n (%) 14 (8.75%)   
  1. Data are presented as means (SD), median (quartile 1, quartile 3) or number (percentage)
  2. VA vitamin A, VAD vitamin A deficiency, PICU pediatric intensive care unit, PRISM Pediatric Risk of Mortality score
  3. aMann-Whitney U test
  4. bChi-squared test
  5. cFisher exact test
  6. dStudent’s t test
  7. #P < 0.0001