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Table 1 Host and viral mechanisms of influenza-associated pathogenesis

From: Influenza virus-related critical illness: pathophysiology and epidemiology

Host and viral mechanisms of influenza-associated pathology
Direct viral induced pathology Innate immune responses Adaptive immune responses
  • Epithelial cell death (apoptosis and necrosis)
  • Alveolar compromise
  • Denudation of the airways
• Local and systemic cytokine production
• Innate immune cellular infiltration (neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes)
• Extracellular matrix degradation
• Exuberant T cell responses (CD4 and CD8)
• Excess cytokine production
• Immune-cell mediated epithelial denudation
• Amplification of inflammation and local and systemic cytokine production