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Table 1 Basic characteristics of both trials

From: Pre-hospital plasma transfusion: a valuable coagulation support or an expensive fluid therapy?

  COMBAT PAMPer
  FFP Standard FFP Standard
Setting US ground EMS transport (Denver) single-centre US air EMS transport multicentre
Randomisation Individual randomisation by content of cooling boxes; staff non-blinded Cluster randomisation at monthly intervals; staff non-blinded
Inclusion criteria BP < 70 mmHg or BP 71–90 mmHg + HR > 108/min BP < 70 mmHg or BP < 90 mmHg and HR > 108/min
Patients included (n) 65 vs 60 230 vs 271
Age median (IQR) 33 (25–51) 33 (25–42) 44 (31–59) 46 (28–60)
Male (%) 80 85 71 74
Blunt injury (%) 46 53 81 73
Injury severity Score median (IQR)* 27 (10–41) 27 (11–36) 22 (14–33) 21 (12–29)
Prothrombin time ratio or INR on hospital arrival 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3
Pre-hospital management
 Pre-hospital intubation (%) Not provided Not provided 50 50
 Pre-hospital RBCs (%) Not provided Not provided 26 42
 Pre-hospital crystalloids (mls) median (IQR) 150 (0–300) 250 (100–500) 500 (0–1250) 900 (0–1500)
 Tranexamic acid within 6 h (%) 9 13 Not provided Not provided
 Intervention 2 U pre-thawed FFP up to 5d old FFP vs standard 2 U apheresis FFP (approx. 500 ml) vs standard
 Median Transportation time median (IQR) 28 (22–34) min 24 (19–31) min 42 (34–53) min 40 (33–41) min
Outcome
 Primary endpoint Mortality 28 days Mortality 30 days
 Mortality 28/30d (%) 15 10 23 33
 Mortality 24 h (%) 12 10 14 22
  1. *Combat trial New Injury Severity Score was used