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Table 1 The impact of closed blood sampling systems on blood loss, hemoglobin levels, and transfusion rates

From: Interventions to prevent iatrogenic anemia: a Laboratory Medicine Best Practices systematic review

Study (year) Absolute effect (95% CI) Relative effect Effect rating Quality rating Consistency Strength of evidence
Impact on blood loss (mL/day)
 MacIsaac (2003) [22] 11.4a (-19.1, 41.9) 27% Moderate Good Consistent Moderate
 Gleason (1992) [26] 34.0 (10.1, 57.9) 49% Substantial Fair
 Peruzzi (1993) [25] 24.0 (7.0, 41.0) 27% Moderate Good
 Widness (2005) [5] NRb 24% Moderate Good
Impact on hemoglobin decline (g/L/day)
 MacIsaac (2003) [22] -2.2 (-10.4, 6.0)c -1.2 Minimal Good Inconsistent Insufficient
 Mukhopadhyay (2010) [24] 1.5 (0.6, 2.4) 32 Substantial Fair
 Mukhopadhyay (2011) [23] 0.3 (0.1, 0.5)d 6 Minimal Fair
 Peruzzi [25] 1.4 (-0.9, 3.7) 36 Substantial Good
 Rezende [27] 0.7 (-0.5, 1.2) 50 Substantial Good
 Thorpe [28] -0.7 (-0.9, -0.4)c -1 Minimal Good
Transfusion risk (≥ 1 transfusion/admission)
 MacIsaac [22] 0.6 (0.3, 0.9) 75% Substantial Good Inconsistent Insufficient
 Mukhopadhyay [24] 1.4 (0.9, 2.3) -44% Substantial Fair
 Peruzzi [25] 1.2 (0.7, 2.3) -17% Moderate Good
 Rezende [27] 0.7 (0.5, 1.2) 75% Substantial Good
  1. aAdjusted for median length of stay, which differed between groups
  2. bGraphical representation only
  3. cGreater decline among the intervention group
  4. dNon-transfused patients only