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Table 1 Characteristics of the enrolled patients

From: The association between nutritional adequacy and 28-day mortality in the critically ill is not modified by their baseline nutritional status and disease severity

Patient characteristics Enrolled patients (n = 440) Survivors (n = 317) Nonsurvivors (n = 123) p value Short-term ENS (≤ 6 days) (n = 106) Longer-term ENS (≥ 7 days) (n = 146) p value
Age (years) 61.4 (15.7) 59.3 (15.9) 66.8 (14.1) < 0.001 60.4 (16.9) 59.5 (15.5) 0.655
Male 259 [58.9] 192 [60.6] 67 [54.5] 0.244 63 [59.4] 92 [63.0] 0.564
BMI (kg/m2) 24.4 [21.3, 28.2] 24.4 [21.2, 28.0] 24.2 [21.3, 28.6] 0.955 24.5 [21.2, 29.5] 24.6 [21.8, 28.4] 0.726
Location before adm.     0.003    0.976
 ED/HD/OT 357 [81.1] 268 [84.5] 89 [72.4]   88 [83.0] 121 [82.9]  
 Wards 83 [18.9] 49 [15.5] 34 [27.6]   18 [17.0] 25 [17.1]  
Type of adm.     0.006    0.001
 Medical 293 [66.6] 199 [62.8] 94 [76.4]   80 [75.5] 79 [54.1]  
 Surgery 147 [33.4] 118 [37.2] 29 [23.6]   26 [24.5] 67 [45.9]  
Number of comorbidities 2.0 [1.0, 4.0] 2.0 [1.0, 4.0] 3.0 [2.0, 4.0] 0.069 3.0 [1.0, 4.0] 2.0 [1.0, 3.0] 0.002
LOS before ICU adm. (days) 0.0 [0.0, 1.0] 0.0 [0.0, 1.0] 1.0 [0.0, 3.0] 0.009 0.0 [0.0, 1.3] 0.0 [0.0, 1.3] 0.730
APACHE II 24.5 (8.1) 22.6 (7.4) 29.5 (7.7) < 0.001 25.4 (8.4) 24.7 (7.6) 0.543
SOFA 8.7 (3.8) 7.9 (3.5) 10.7 (3.8) < 0.001 9.2 (3.7) 9.1 (3.8) 0.909
mNUTRIC 5.3 (2.1) 4.8 (2.1) 6.6 (1.5) < 0.001 5.5 (2.3) 5.3 (2.0) 0.531
mNUTRIC ≥ 5 299 [68.0] 187 [59.0] 112 [91.1] < 0.001 74 [69.8] 100 [68.5] 0.823
Malnutrition 123 [28.0] 72 [22.7] 51 [41.5] < 0.001 31 [29.2] 35 [24.0] 0.347
Admission reasons     < 0.001    0.020
 Cardiovascular 82 [18.6] 43 [13.6] 39 [31.7]   19 [17.9] 18 [12.3]  
 Respiratory 84 [19.1] 68 [21.5] 16 [13.0] 24 [22.6] 21 [14.4]
 Sepsis 105 [23.9] 72 [22.7] 33 [26.8] 36 [34.0] 39 [26.7]
 Trauma 12 [2.7] 12 [3.8] 0 [0.0] 4 [3.3] 4 [2.7]
 Metabolic/renal 8 [1.8] 8 [2.5] 0 [0.0] 2 [1.9] 2 [1.4]
 Gastrointestinal 42 [9.6] 29 [9.2] 13 [10.6] 3 [2.8] 8 [5.5]
 Postoperation 13 [3.0] 12 [3.8] 1 [0.8] 4 [3.8] 3 [2.1]
 Orthopaedics 7 [1.6] 6 [1.9] 1 [0.8] 1 [0.9] 2 [1.4]
 Neurological 87 [19.8] 67 [21.1] 20 [16.3] 13 [12.3] 49 [33.6]
CPR before ICU adm. 53 [12.1] 17 [5.4] 36 [29.3] < 0.001 18 [17.0] 18 [12.3] 0.297
Length of MV (days) 2.0 [1.0, 5.0] 2.0 [1.0, 4.0] 3.0 [2.0, 6.0] < 0.001 3.0 [2.0, 4.0] 7.0 [4.0, 13.0] < 0.001
ICU LOS (days) 2.0 [2.0, 5.0] 2.0 [1.0, 4.0] 3.0 [2.0, 6.0] 0.001 3.0 [2.0, 4.0] 7.0 [4.0, 12.0] < 0.001
Hospital LOS (days) 14.0 [7.0, 25.0] 15.0 [9.0, 33.0] 9.0 [4.0, 16.0] < 0.001 8.0 [4.0, 15.3] 24.0 [16.0, 45.0] < 0.001
  1. Values are mean (standard deviation), median [Q1, Q3], or count [percentage]
  2. Adm. admission, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, BMI body mass index, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ED emergency department, ENS exclusive nutritional support, HD high dependency, ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, MV mechanical ventilation, mNUTRIC Modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill, OT operation theatre, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment