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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adult critical care survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Study period Location Type of ICU No. of patients Age, mean ± SD Male sex, n (%) PTSD prevalence, n (%) Instrument of assessment Time of assessment
Abraham et al. [19] Not reported USA Trauma ICU 115 42.4 ± 16.7 64 (55.7%) 30 (26%) DTS 1 year after hospital discharge
Aitken et al. [20] May 2014–April 2015 Australia Not reported 57 53.7 ± 14.8 37 (65%) 7 (12.3%) PCL-5 3–5 months after ICU discharge
Asimakopoulou and Madianos [21] March 2009–June 2011 Greece General hospitals 102 45.98 ± 15.17 65 (63.7%) 18 (17.6%) Mini DSM-IV 3 months after ICU discharge
Bashar et al. [22] 2018 Iran Mixed ICU 181 65 60 (33%) 181 (100%) IES-R 3–21 days after ICU discharge
Bienvenu et al. [6] October 2004–October 2007 USA Mixed ICU 151 (3 months) 49 ± 14 123 (55%) 36 (23.8%) IES-R 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ICU admission
161 (6 months) 32 (19.8%)
141 (12 months) 32 (22.7%)
135 (24 months) 32 (23.7%)
Boer et al. [23] December 2001–February 2005 Netherlands Surgical ICU 108 66.8 (57–73)* 41 (38%) 41 (38%) PTSS-10 and IES-R 1 year after ICU admission
Bugedo et al. [24] April 2006–January 2007 Chile Not reported 75 59.5 Not reported 20 (26.66%) PTSS-10 1 year after ICU admission
Castillo et al. [25] September 2012–February 2013 Australia Mixed ICU 101 (3 months) 54 ± 15 98 (70%) 19 (18.8%) PTSS-10 3 and 6 months after ICU discharge
92 (6 months) 15 (16.3%)
Chahraoui et al. [26] January–June 2013 France Medical ICU 20 68 ± 8.5 9 (45%) 3 (15%) IES-R 3 months after ICU discharge
Cox et al. [27] 2009–2010 USA Mixed ICU 21 56 (47–74)* 9 (43%) 12 (57.1%) PTSS-10 6 weeks after hospital discharge
Cuthbertson et al. [28] Not reported Scotland Mixed ICU 78 58 (18–87)* 44 (56%) 11 (14.1%) DSM-IV 3 months after ICU discharge
Da Costa et al. [29] September 2008–August 2009 Brazil Medical ICU 138 43.5 (17) 95 (68.8%) 7 (5%) IES-R 3 months after ICU discharge
Davydow et al. [30] Not reported Not reported Trauma ICU 1456 40.8 (32.0)* Not reported 364 (25%) PCL-17 12 months after ICU discharge
Davydow et al. [31] September 2010–August 2011 USA Mixed ICU 131 (3 months) 49.0 ± 14.6 69 (57.5%) 20 (15.2%) PCL-C 3 and 12 months after ICU discharge
120 (12 months) 18 (15%)
de Miranda et al. [32] Not reported France Not reported 126 67 (57–75)* Not reported 26 (20.6%) IES-R 3 months after ICU discharge
Elliott et al. [33] Not reported Australia Not reported 178 57.20 ± 17.20 116 (65%) 24 (13.5%) PCL-S 6 months after hospital discharge
Girard et al. [34] February–May 2001 USA Medical and cardiac ICU 43 52 (39–65)* 20 (47%) 6 (13.9%) PTSS-10 6 months after hospital discharge
Granja et al. [35] January–June 2015 Portugal Not reported 313 59 (44–71)* 183 (58%) 54 (17.2%) PTSS-14 6 months after ICU discharge
Griffiths et al. [36] January 2000–December 2002 England Not reported 108 56.9 Not reported 56 (54.7%) PTSS-10 3 months after ICU discharge
Günther et al. [37] December 2015–March 2016 Sweden Mixed ICU 30 62 ± 15 18 (60%) 4 (13.3%) PTSS-10 1 week after ICU discharge
Hauer et al. [38] Not reported Germany Not reported 33 40.3 ± 12.5 16 (48%) 9 (27.3%) PTSS-10 7.5 ± 2.9 years after ICU discharge
Hauer et al. [39] July 2004–July 2005 Germany Cardiac ICU 126 66 ± 9.5 Not reported 15 (11.9%) PTSS-10 6 months after ICU admission
Hepp et al. [40] January 1996–June 2000 Sweden Trauma ICU 90 38.9 ± 13.2 69 (77%) 32 (36%) CAPS Up to 3 years after ICU admission
Huang et al. [41] Not reported Not reported Medical ICU 605 (6 months) 49 ± 15 Not reported 148 (24.5%) IES-R 6 and 12 months after ICU admission
573 (12 months) 132 (23%)
Jackson et al. [3] March 2007–June 2010 USA Medical or surgical ICU 467 (3 months) 59 (49–69)* 234 (50%) 27 (5.8%) PCL-S 3 and 12 months after hospital discharge
467 (12 months) 59 (49–69)* 24 (5.1%)
Jones et al. [42] 2003–2005 England Mixed ICU 238 61 (17–86)* 149 (62%) 22 (9.2%) PTSS-14 3 months after ICU discharge
Jones et al. [43] 2006–2008 Europe Not reported 332 59.9 210 (63.2%) 29 (8.7%) TSQ 3 months after ICU discharge
Jónasdóttir et al. [44] 2017 Iceland Mixed ICU 143 Not reported M—88 (61.5%) 12/130 (9%)
(3 months)
IES-R 3, 6, and 12 months after ICU discharge
15/110 (14%)
(6 months)
15/102 (15%)
(12 months)
Jubran et al. [45] Not reported USA Long-term ICU 41 66 (59–72)* 26 (63%) 5 (12.2%) PTSS-10 3 months after weaning
Kapfhammer et al. [46] Not reported Not reported Not reported 46 (discharge) 36.5 (18.0–50.0)* Not reported 20 (43.5%) DSM-IV At ICU discharge and (average of) 8 years after ICU discharge
Kress et al. [47] Not reported USA Medical ICU 32 48.1 20 (62.5) 6 (18.7) IES-R 3 months after ICU discharge
Myhren et al. [48] February 2006–December 2006 Norway Mixed, medical and cardiac ICU 238 47.9 (15.7) 160 (62.7) 64 (26.8) IES 4–6 weeks after ICU discharge
Myhren et al. [49] February 2005–December 2006 Norway Mixed, medical, and cardiac ICU 180 47.9 (15.7)* Not reported 48 (26.6%) IES 12 months after ICU discharge
Nickel et al. [50] 1999–2000 Germany Medical ICU 41 47.4 Not reported 4 (9.7%) SCID 3–15 months after ICU discharge (average: 6.2 months)
Richter et al. [51] Not reported Germany Surgical ICU 37 41.7 (17.0)* 28 (76%) 3 (8.1%) DSM-IV Mean of 35 (±14) months after ICU discharge
Samuelson et al. [52] September 2003–March 2005 Sweden Medical ICU 226 63.3 (13.4) 117 (52%) 19 (8.4%) IES-R 12 months after ICU discharge
Schellinget al. [53] Not reported Germany Not reported 54 54.2 Not reported 21 (38.8%) PTSS-10 Not reported
Schelling et al. [54] Not reported Germany Not reported 20 51.8 8 (40%) 8 (40%) DSM-IV Median 31 months after ICU discharge
Schnyder et al. [55] January 1996–June 1997 Switzerland Trauma ICU 106 37.5 (13.2) Not reported 5 (4.7%) DSM-IV Within 1 month of trauma (median 13.7 days)
Scragg et al. [56] October 1995–October 1997 England Medical ICU 80 57.1 42 (52.5%) 12 (15%) IES Not reported
Shaw et al. [57] Not reported Not reported Not reported 20 Not reported Not reported 7 (35%) IES Not reported
Strøm et al. [58] Not reported Denmark Mixed, medical and surgical ICU 26 67.0 9 (34.61%) 1 (3.8%) PTSS-10 2 years after ICU stay
Twigg et al. [59] December 2000–February 2002 United Kingdom Medical ICU 44 56.0 20 (45.4%) 10 (22.7%) PTSS-14 3 months after ICU discharge
Van der Schaaf et al. [60] June 2004–June 2005 Netherlands Mixed ICU 255 58.8 (16.6) 166 (69%) 43 (16.8%) IES 1 year after ICU admission
Wade et al. [61] November 2008–September 2009 England Medical ICU 100 57.2 (17.4) 52 (52%) 27 (27%) PDS 3 months after ICU admission
Wallen et al. [62] Not reported Australia Mixed, medical, surgical and trauma ICU 100 63 (29.8) 68 (68%) 13 (13%) IES-R 1 month after ICU discharge
Weinert and Sprenkle [63] 2001–2003 USA Mixed, medical and surgical ICU 80 54.6 Not reported 12 (15%) PDS 6 months after ICU admission
Wintermann et al. [64] 2017 Germany Long-term ICU 97 Not reported 73 (75.2%) 29/97 (29.9%) PTSS-10 3 and 6 months post-transfer (combined result)
  1. CAPS Clinician-Administered Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale; DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; DTS Davidson Trauma Scale; IES Impact of Event Scale; IES-R Impact of Event Scale—revised, PCL-5 Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist—Civilian V5; PCL-17 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist—Civilian V17; PCL-C Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist—Civilian Version; PCL-S Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist—Specific Version; PDS Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale; PTSS-10 Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 10-Question Inventory; PTSS-14 Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 14-Question Inventory; SCID Structured Clinical Interview; TSQ Trauma Screening Questionnaire
  2. *Median (interquartile range)