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Table 2 Characteristics and demographic parameters of patients in the included studies

From: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy versus conventional oxygen therapy in patients after planned extubation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Sample
size (n)
Age
(years)
Gender
(M/F)
BMI
(kg/m2)
PaO2/FiO2 at extubation Comorbidity (n)a Endpoints
Respiratory disease Hypertension Neurologic disease Heart disease Others
Parke 2013 [17, 28]
 HFNC group 169 65 (19–88)* 129/40 28.4 ± 5.3 N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a Primary outcome: oxygenation. Secondary outcomes: Atelectasis score, length of ICU and hospital stay, 28-day mortality, oxygenation indices, escalation of respiratory support, spirometry, comfort score.
 COT group 171 66 (21–87)* 129/42 29.2 ± 5.5 N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a
Maggiore 2014 [12]
 HFNC group 53 65 ± 18 33/20 N/a 239.4 ± 42.4 24 N/a N/a 6 23 Primary outcome: oxygenation. Secondary outcomes: oxygen desaturation, device displacement, requiring ventilator support#, reintubation, discomfort score.
 COT group 52 64 ± 17 35/17 N/a 241.7 ± 51.1 24 N/a N/a 5 23
Corley 2015 [19]
 HFNC group 81 63 ± 11.4 58/23 36 ± 5.2 N/a 26 N/a N/a N/a 5 Primary outcome: Atelectasis score. Secondary outcomes: RR, oxygenation, subjective dyspnea, reintubation, failure of allocated treatment.
 COT group 74 65 ± 11.1 56/18 35 ± 4.3 N/a 20 N/a N/a N/a 6
Hernández 2016 [22]
 HFNC group 264 51 ± 13.1 164/100 < 30 227 ± 25 32 43 20 20 89 Primary outcome: reintubation within 3 days. Secondary outcomes: mortality, multiorgan failure, postextubation respiratory failure, sepsis, respiratory infection, length of ICU and hospital stay, adverse events, time to reintubation.
 COT group 263 51.8 ± 12.2 153/110 < 30 237 ± 34 30 37 34 23 79
Futier 2016 [27]
 HFNC group 108 62 ± 12 61/47 25 ± 4 N/a 10 34 N/a N/a 76 Primary outcome: rate of hypoxemia 1 h after extubation. Secondary outcomes: pulmonary complications, length of ICU and hospital stay, in-hospital mortality.
 COT group 112 61 ± 13 64/48 25 ± 4 N/a 8 35 N/a N/a 67
Song 2017 [18]
 HFNC group 30 66 ± 14 16/14 N/a 207 ± 27.5 19 N/a N/a 7 4 Primary outcome: therapy success rate. Secondary outcomes: RR, HR, oxygenation indices, MAP.
 COT group 30 71 ± 13 18/12 N/a 204 ± 29 19 N/a N/a 7 4
Fernandez 2017 [23]
 HFNC group 78 67.3 ± 12 46/32 N/a N/a 22 N/a N/a 9 N/a Primary outcome: respiratory failure within 3 days. Secondary outcomes: length of ICU and hospital stay, reintubation, mortality.
 COT group 77 69.7 ± 13 55/22 N/a N/a 24 N/a N/a 9 N/a
Tiruvoipati 2010 [25]
 HFNC group 42 65.22 ± 17.6 20/22 N/a > 175 N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a Primary outcome: efficacy of oxygenation. Secondary outcomes: HR, RR, blood pressure, comfort score, tolerance score.
 COT group 42 65.22 ± 17.6 20/22 N/a > 175 N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a
Rittayamai 2014 [13]
 HFNC group 17 66.8 ± 13.8 10/7 N/a ≥ 150 9 8 N/a 8 N/a Primary outcome: dyspnea score. Secondary outcomes: HR, RR, MAP, comfort score.
 COT group 17 66.8 ± 13.8 10/7 N/a ≥ 150 9 8 N/a 8 N/a
Di mussi 2018 [26]
 HFNC group 14 71.5 ± 9 12/2 N/a > 150 N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a Primary outcome: neuroventilatory drive and work of breathing. Secondary outcomes: RR, oxygenation indices.
 COT group 14 71.5 ± 9 12/2 N/a > 150 N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a
  1. Respiratory disease including pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and other respiratory disease; heart disease including cardiogenic pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrest
  2. M male, F female, BMI body mass index, PaO2 arterial partial pressure of oxygen, FiO2 fraction of the inspired oxygen, HFNC high-flow nasal cannula, COT conventional oxygen therapy, BMI body-mass index, SpO2 pulse oxygen saturation, RR respiratory rate, ARR absolute risk reduction, HR heart rate, MAP mean arterial pressure
  3. Plus-minus values are the means ± SDs
  4. aPatients can have more than 1 comorbidity
  5. *Values are median and interquartile range
  6. #Requiring ventilator support including any form of ventilator support, e.g., noninvasive ventilation or mechanical ventilation