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Table 2 Clinical outcomes

From: The effect of adhesive tape versus endotracheal tube fastener in critically ill adults: the endotracheal tube securement (ETTS) randomized controlled trial

Outcome Tube fastener (n = 153) Adhesive tape (n = 145) p value
Primary outcome
 Lip ulcers, skin tear, tube dislodgement, or ventilator-associated pneumonia—no. of patients (%) 12 (7.8) 25 (17.2) 0.014
 Rate of primary outcome (per 1000 patient ventilator days) (95% CI) 22.0 (16.3–27.7) 52.6 (47.4–57.8) 0.020
Components of primary outcome
 Lip ulcer—no. (%) 4 (2.6) 11 (7.3) 0.050
  Rate per 1000 patient ventilator days 6.8 (5.6–8.0) 19.3 (17.1–21.6) 0.052
 Skin tear—no. (%) 2 (1.4) 3 (2.1) 0.610
  Rate per 1000 patient ventilator days 3.4 (2.0–4.8) 5.3 (4.7–5.9) 0.622
 Tube dislodgement*—no. (%) 6 (3.9) 15 (10.3) 0.030
  Rate per 1000 patient ventilator days 11.9 (6.5–17.3) 28.1 (24.4–31.8) 0.035
Secondary outcomes
 ETT repositioned—no. (%) 17 (12.1) 40 (29.0) < 0.001
 Self-extubations—no. (%) 2 (1.3) 2 (1.4) 0.957
 Ventilator-associated pneumonia 0 (0) 0 (0) N/A
 MV duration (days) 3.9 ± 3.0 3.9 ± 3.4 0.75
 ICU mortality—no. (%) 52 (34.0) 51 (35.2) 0.83
 Hospital mortality—no. (%) 57 (37.3) 54 (37.2) 0.99
  1. Data are reported as no. (%), rate per 1000 patient ventilator days (95% CI), or mean ± standard deviation
  2. *Tube dislodgement defined as or needing to reposition the endotracheal tube more than 1 cm