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Table 1 Comparative technical difficulty of hemodialysis, extracorporeal removal of carbon dioxide, and extracorporeal oxygenation

From: Extracorporeal gas exchange: when to start and how to end?

  Renal hemodialysis Extracorporeal removal of carbon dioxide Extracorporeal oxygenation
Extracorporeal blood flow (ml/min) 200–300 500–1000 2000–4000
Blood pumping optional optional required
Hemodynamic changes small small major
Vascular access A-V shunt or
A-V fistula
A-V shunt or
A-V fistula or
V-V pumping
V-A or
V-V
Surgical complexity simple simple complex
Complexity of equipment moderate simple advanced
Requirement for heparin small small large
  1. Table 1 Reproduced with permission from Gattinoni et al., Control of intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) by extracorporeal removal of carbon dioxide, British Journal of Anesthesia, © 1978 Elsevier Inc. [4]