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Table 2 Primary and secondary endpoints—vasoactive medication

From: Fluid management in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: effects of an acetate- versus lactate-buffered balanced infusion solution on hemodynamic stability (HEMACETAT)

Primary endpointRinger’s acetate (n = 75), median (IQR)Ringer’s lactate (n = 73), median (IQR)p value
Average rate of inopressors (norepinephrine and epinephrine) [μg/kg/h] until hemodynamic stabilization2.1 (0.5–8.1)1.7 (0.7–8.2)0. 989
Secondary endpoints—vasoactive medication
 Average rate of norepinephrine [μg/kg/h] until hemodynamic stabilization1.8 (0.5–6.7)1.5 (0.6–4.7)0.672
 Average rate of epinephrine [μg/kg/h]§ per hour on epinephrine0.2 (0.1–9.3)4.5 (0.4–33.0)0.047
 Average rate of inopressors (norepinephrine and epinephrine) [μg/kg/h] per hour on inopressors4.1 (1.0–11.8)3.7 (1.6–12.1)0.959
 Average rate of norepinephrine [μg/kg/h]# per hour on norepinephrine4.1 (1.1–11.7)3.4 (1.5–9.5)0.907
 Average rate of epinephrine [μg/kg/h]§ per hour on epinephrine0.2 (0.1–9.3)4.5 (0.4–33.0)0.047
 Cumulative dose of inopressors [μg/kg]22 (5–83)20 (7–114)0.928
 Cumulative dose of norepinephrine [μg/kg]19 (5–71)16 (6–61)0.726
 Cumulative dose of epinephrine [μg/kg]22 (5–83)20 (7–114)0.928
 Time on inopressors [h]°4.8 (4.1–10.7)6.1 (4.0–10.6)0.505
 Time on norepinephrine [h]#°4.8 (4.1–6.4)4.5 (3.7–7.4)0.836
 Time on epinephrine [h]*°0.0 (0.0–0.0)0.0 (0.0–3.4)0.209
 Cumulative dose of inodilators, ICU [μg]0 (0.0–0.0)0 (0.0–0.0)0.375
 Time on inodilators, ICU [min]0 (0.0–0.0)0 (0.0–0.0)0.386
 Cumulative dose of vasodilators [mg]0 (0.0–2.8)0 (0.0–4.2)0.844
 Time on vasodilators, ICU [h]0 (0.0–1.7)0 (0.0–6.4)0.726
Secondary endpoints—fluids
 Total amount of study fluid received (mL)6677 (5325–8479)6104 (4769–7855)0.272
 Total amount of fluid received other than study fluid during study period (mL)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0.976
 Total amount of fluid received after initial hemodynamic stabilization until ICU discharge (mL)289 (104–972)255 (121–631)0.711
 Total amount of fluid received from the start of anesthesia to ICU discharge (mL)7189 (5622–9120)6644 (5400–8379)0.234
  1. *Not including four patients who received one single-bolus injection of epinephrine only
  2. #Not including one patient who received one single-bolus injection of norepinephrine only
  3. °From intubation to end of study period defined