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Table 7 Association between the dysregulation of cytokines and specific autoimmune diseases

From: The association between autoimmune disease and 30-day mortality among sepsis ICU patients: a cohort study

Pathway Cytokine dysregulation (based upon literature) Diseases involved Sepsis cohort Septic shock cohort
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Pro-inflammatory Overexpression IL-1 [8, 9, 12] Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory myopathies*, giant cell arteritis 0.81 (0.62–1.06) 0.126 0.75 (0.57–0.97) 0.032 0.80 (0.59–1.07) 0.135 0.75 (0.56–1.01) 0.062
IL-6 [3, 8, 9, 12] Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, giant cell arteritis 0.83 (0.68–1.01) 0.066 0.85 (0.70–1.04) 0.116 0.75 (0.60–0.95) 0.015 0.77 (0.62–0.97) 0.025
IL-12 [8, 12] Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis 0.76 (0.59–0.99) 0.040 0.71 (0.55–0.92) 0.009 0.73 (0.55–0.98) 0.035 0.69 (0.52–0.92) 0.012
INF-y [8, 9, 12] Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, giant cell arteritis 0.63 (0.45–0.89) 0.008 0.59 (0.42–0.83) 0.002 0.59 (0.41–0.86) 0.007 0.56 (0.39–0.82) 0.003
TNF-a [3, 8, 9, 12] Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, scleroderma, inflammatory myopathies*, giant cell arteritis 0.84 (0.69–1.02) 0.077 0.86 (0.71–1.04) 0.120 0.77 (0.61–0.96) 0.020 0.79 (0.63–0.98) 0.032
Underexpression IL-12 [8, 11] Myasthenia gravis 0.31 (0.08–1.22) 0.094 0.37 (0.09–1.48) 0.159 0.24 (0.03–1.67) 0.148 0.27 (0.04–1.91) 0.189
INF-y [8, 12] Systemic lupus erythematosus 0.88 (0.52–1.51) 0.645 0.75 (0.45–1.28) 0.294 0.90 (0.53–1.55) 0.708 0.79 (0.47–1.34) 0.389
TNF-a [8, 9] Systemic lupus erythematosus and ankylosing spondylitis 0.83 (0.52–1.33) 0.443 0.71 (0.44–1.13) 0.145 0.86 (0.54–1.39) 0.549 0.75 (0.47–1.20) 0.236
Anti-inflammatory Overexpression IL-4 [3, 8, 12] Systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, scleroderma 1.02 (0.64–1.62) 0.941 0.88 (0.56–1.38) 0.571 1.03 (0.64–1.66) 0.908 0.92 (0.58–1.46) 0.712
IL-10 [9, 12] Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus e 0.85 (0.66–1.10) 0.220 0.77 (0.60–0.99) 0.039 0.85 (0.65–1.11) 0.239 0.79 (0.61–1.03) 0.083
TGF-B [12] Inflammatory myopathies* 0.62 (0.15–2.49) 0.500 0.53 (0.13–2.13) 0.371 0.83 (0.21–3.37) 0.799 0.80 (0.20–3.21) 0.754
IL-13 [3, 8] Multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, scleroderma 0.63 (0.37–1.06) 0.084 0.62 (0.36–1.04) 0.072 0.55 (0.29–1.02) 0.058 0.53 (0.28–0.98) 0.043
Underexpression IL-1 receptor antagonist [9] Rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis 0.90 (0.67–1.21) 0.492 1.11 (0.83–1.47) 0.481 0.76 (0.53–1.07) 0.118 0.90 (0.64–1.27) 0.555
IL-4 [12] Rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis 0.76 (0.57–1.00) 0.054 0.89 (0.67–1.18) 0.411 0.62 (0.44–0.87) 0.006 0.70 (0.50–0.98) 0.040
IL-10 [8, 12] Rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis 0.76 (0.57–1.00) 0.054 0.89 (0.67–1.18) 0.411 0.62 (0.44–0.87) 0.006 0.70 (0.50–0.98) 0.040
TGF-B [8, 12] Systemic lupus erythematosus 0.88 (0.52–1.51) 0.645 0.75 (0.45–1.28) 0.294 0.90 (0.53–1.55) 0.708 0.79 (0.47–1.34) 0.389
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, race, ICU unit, Elixhauser score, pre-admission chronic DMARD or prednisone use, and SOFA. Model 2 adjusted for SOFA
  2. *Inflammatory myopathies include polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis