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Table 1 Indications for oral anticoagulation in patients at risk of venous thromboembolism (modified from Watzke et al. 2013) [134]

From: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach in adult patients with traumatic brain injury receiving oral anticoagulant therapy: an Austrian interdisciplinary consensus statement

Low thromboembolic risk High thromboembolic risk
Platelet inhibitors Platelet inhibitors
▪ CHD or other cardiovascular diseases (cerebrovascular disease, PAD) without complications ▪ CHD or other cardiovascular diseases with complications or additional risk factors (ischemic cardiomyopathy, St.p. cardiac decompensation, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, PAD, renal impairment)
▪ Diabetes mellitus with increased cardiovascular risk ▪ St.p. surgical or interventional procedures in patients with CHD, PAD, or cerebrovascular disease within the last year (e.g., coronary stent)
▪ Acute coronary syndrome or myocardial infarction during the last year
VKAs and NOACs VKAs and NOACs
▪ Non-valvular atrial fibrillation and CHADS2 score or CHADS2-VA2SC score ≤ 3 without stroke ▪ Non-valvular atrial fibrillation and CHADS2 score or CHADS2-VA2SC score > 3 or St.p. stroke
▪ Previous venous thromboembolism (> 3 months ago) ▪ Atrial fibrillation
▪ Mechanical aortic valve prosthesis without other risk factors (atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, CHD, PAD, diabetes mellitus, age > 75 years, stroke) ▪ Mechanical mitral valve prosthesis or other mechanical valve prostheses with additional risk factors, particularly atrial fibrillation or St.p. stroke
▪ Venous thromboembolism during the last 3 months
  1. CHD coronary heart disease, NOACs non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, PAD peripheral arterial disease, VKAs vitamin K antagonists