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Table 4 The number of actual and predicted outcomes of prediction models in the test set

From: Emergency department triage prediction of clinical outcomes using machine learning models

Conventional 5 triage levels (ESI) Actual number of critical care outcome, n (%) Reference model Lasso regression Random forest Gradient boosted tree Deep neural network
Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome
1: Immediate (n = 768) 86 (11.1) 86 768 72 366 79 460 74 373 76 393
2: Emergent (n = 5046) 323 (6.4) 323 5046 241 2175 290 2970 249 2165 264 2387
3: Urgent (n = 19,700) 331 (1.7) 0 0 244 5395 269 7482 239 5278 255 5698
4: Semi-urgent (n = 12,344) 64 (0.5) 0 0 45 1498 52 2283 44 1464 46 1505
5: Non-urgent (n = 2783) 19 (0.7) 0 0 15 308 17 457 14 300 16 315
Overall (n = 40,641) 823 (2.0) 409 5814 617 9742 707 13,652 620 9580 657 10,298
Conventional 5 triage levels (ESI) Actual number of hospitalization outcome, n (%) Reference model Lasso regression Random forest Gradient boosted tree Deep neural network
Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome Number of correctly identified outcome Number of predicted outcome
1: Immediate (n = 768) 319 (41.5) 319 768 213 393 259 460 241 434 252 471
2: Emergent (n = 5046) 1810 (35.9) 1810 5046 1398 2702 1500 3039 1482 2875 1563 3188
3: Urgent (n = 19,700) 3628 (18.4) 3628 19,700 2528 7320 2716 8307 2626 7512 2791 8484
4: Semi-urgent (n = 12,344) 717 (5.8) 0 0 466 2103 509 2584 488 2154 524 2515
5: Non-urgent (n = 2783) 173 (6.2) 0 0 105 434 121 577 117 441 120 547
Overall (n = 40,641) 6647 (16.4) 5757 25,514 4710 12,952 5105 14,967 4954 13,416 5250 15,205
  1. Abbreviations: ESI Emergency Severity Index, ICU intensive care unit